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Full text of "Communist infiltration of Hollywood motion-picture industry : hearing before the Committee on Un-American activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-second Congress, first session"


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COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF THE HOLLYWOOD 
MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY-PART 10 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



NOVEMBER 12 AND 13, 1952 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
21643 WASHINGTON : 1952 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia. Chairman 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Rdssell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

November 12, 1952, testimony of Abram S. Burrows 4471 

November 13, 1952, testimony of Karan Morley 4508 

in 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF3THE HOLLYWOOD 
MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 10 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 1952 

United States House or Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to call at 11 : 20 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office Building, 
Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives John S. Wood, Mor- 
gan M. Moulder, James B. Frazier, Jr., and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas W. 
Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; John W. Carrington, clerk; and A. S. 
Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. Come to order, please. 

Mr. Reporter, will you let the record show that, acting under the 
authority vested in me by the resolution establishing this committee, 
I have set up a subcommittee for the purpose of this hearing today 
composed of Messrs. Moulder, Frazier, Velde, and myself, and we are 
all here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Abram S. Burrows ? 

Mr. Wood. Will you be sworn, please? 

Raise your right hand, please, sir. You do solemnly swear that 
the evidence you shall give before this committee will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Burrows. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAM S. BURROWS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

MARTIN GANG 

Mr. Wood. Have a seat, please. 
Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 
Mr. Burrows. Abram S. Burrows. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Burrows. I am. Mr. Martin Gang. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Burrows? 
Mr. Burrows. I was born in New York City, December 18, 1910. 
Mr. Tavenner. What is your present address ? 
Mr. Burrows. 1161 York Avenue, New York City. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly what your edu- 
cational training has been? 

4471 



4472 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. I went to elementary school, high school, in New 
York City and in Manhattan and in Brooklyn ; went to College of the 
City of New York and NYU School of Finance, Pace Institute of 
Accounting. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Burrows. I am a writer and director in the theater, and I also 
appear periodically as a performer on television. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what the record of 
your employment has been since, say, 1936 ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, in 1936 I gave up accounting and was in a 
business called the woven-label business, in which I didn't do very 
well. Then I worked as a salesman in this woven-label company for 
a while, and finally in 1938 I went into show business. I wrote gags 
for a great many comedians around town, and then finally started on 
a regular radio program for the Columbia Broadcasting System. Do 
you want me to go on from there, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Please tell the committee where you engaged 
in these various lines of activity and as near as you can when you 
changed the location of your work, give us the dates. 

Mr. Burrows. Eight. Well, in New York City I worked on this 
radio program in 1938. Then in 1939 I was hired to do a program 
called the Texaco Star Theater in California. I went to California 
and wrote this Texaco Star Theater for Ken Murray and Frances 
Langford and Kenny Baker, and then in 1940 I was employed to 
write the Rudy Vallee-John Barrymore radio program. 

I started that in New York, went back to California with it. While 
in California, we got an idea for a program called Duffy's Tavern. 
The idea was picked up and sponsored and I went back to New York 
to write Duffy's Tavern. I was head writer of Duffy's Tavern for 
about 5 years, after which I left the field of radio and went to Para- 
mount Pictures as a writer and producer. I didn't write or produce 
anything there. 

Mr. Tavenner What was that date? 

Mr. Burrows. That was about in the middle of 1945. After that 
I wrote a program of my own, that is, one I owned myself and wrote, 
called Holiday and Company. I did that in New York from about 
the end of 1945 until about June of 1946. I came back to California 
and didn't do anything for a couple of months. Then I wrote the 
Dinah Shore program and the Joan Davis program. Then I took on 
my own program called the Abe Burrows Show at the beginning of 
1947 ; did that for a while. Then I went out in night clubs for about 
a year and a half and went back into television. Then I wrote a Broad- 
way show. I was coauthor of Guys and Dolls. Since then I have 
done several other things in the theater. I did Guys and Dolls. I did 
a play called Three Wishes for Jamie, which I was coauthor of and 
I directed, and it is a play that won the Christopher award. 

I am presently engaged in writing a new play for the spring, a 
musical, and I am employed on a weekly television show called the 
Name Is the Same. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Burrows, you stated that you went to Cali- 
fornia in 1945 and returned for periods to New York in 1946 and then 
returned again to California, if I understood it. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes; I did, sir. I returned to California in the 
middle of 1946. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4473 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, when did you go to California in 1945 ? 

Mr. Burrows. I was in California in 1945, sir. I was doing Duffy's 
Tavern there, right up until the spring of 1945. Then I went with 
Paramount and that was in California. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Now, when did you go to California prior to your working on Duffy's 
Tavern? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, as 1 say, my first trip to California was in 1939. 
Then my next trip to stay for any length of time was in 1943. I went 
to California in 1943 in the middle of the year sometime, and I stayed 
from then until the time I left for New York to do Holiday and 
Company in 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you stated how you were employed or in what 
work you were engaged in California from 1943 up until 1945 ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes; I was writing Duffy's Tavern. You see, I did 
that for 5 years. I was completely identified with that show. I didn't 
do anything else. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Burrows, you appeared in executive session of 
this committee on March 20, 1951, at which time you were interrogated 
about your activities in California and New York, and at that time 
your testimony was very vague with regard to your knowledge of 
individuals who have been shown to be members of the Communist 
Party in Hollywood and your contacts with those individuals. The 
investigation by the committee has continued, and during the course 
of our hearings in California there was a witness who appeared on 
October 2, 1952, before the committee while sitting in California. His 
name was Mr. Owen Vinson. Now, Mr. Vinson testified as to his own 
Communist Party membership, first in Chicago and then his transfer 
to the Communist Party in California. He testified that he was a 
member of the unit of the Communist Party established within radio, 
within a group of radio writers. He further testified that he was 
treasurer of that group for a period of time, possibly as much as 10 
or 12 months. He fixed the time at which he was a member of that 
group in Hollywood, that is, the Communist Party group within radio 
writers, as being from October 1945 or the middle of 194G — his recol- 
lection was not clear as to the exact date — for a period of approxi- 
mately 2 years. 

During the course of his testimony he identified a number of persons 
as having been members of that group. And among them was your- 
self. I will refresh your recollection of what his testimony was, with 
regard to you. The following questions were asked and answers 
given : 

Question. Were you acquainted with Abe Burrows? 

Answer. Yes. sir. 

Question. Was Ahe Burrows a member of the Communist Party to your 
knowledge V 

Answer. Abe Burrows attended meetings of the Communist Party which I 
attended ; yes, sir. 

Question. Have you collected dues from him? 

Answer. I believe I have. I recall many instances of trying to, or at least a 
few instances. 

Question. What do you mean by that? 

Answer. Well, Burrows was a little hard to pin down when it came to collect- 
ing dues. 

Question. You say hard to pin down in the collection of dues? 

Answer. Yes, sir. 



4474 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Question. You mean difficult to collect them? 
Answer. That is right. 

Then this question was asked by Mr. Velcle, a member of the 
committee : 

Mr. Vinson, did you ever collect dues other than at private meetings of the 
Communist Party? 

Answer. Only on rare occasions when it appeared more convenient for the 
person who owed the dues to pay at a given time, and I don't recall at the moment 
any specific instance of that. 

Mr. Velde. In the case of Abe Burrows, do you recall any instances where 
you attempted to collect dues from him other than at a private meeting of the 
Communist Party? 

Answer. I never did. 

And then I resumed the questioning : 

Question. But, at party meetings you endeavored to collect dues from him? 

Answer. That is right. 

Question. Well, was there any occasion when he paid the dues? 

Answer. Yes, I think, as I recall, there were a few occasions when he paid at 
least a part of them. 

Question. What reason did he ascribe at any time for not paying all of the 
dues that were supposed to be paid? 

Answer. Principally that he did not have money with him, as I recall. 

Question. Was there ever a time when any question was raised by him that 
he was not supposed to pay dues because he was not a member of the party? 

Answer. I don't recall any such instances ; no, sir. 

Question. As treasurer of the group, did you consider that he was one of 
those from whom you should collect dues? 

Answer. Yes, sir ; he was one whom I considered I should collect dues from, 
yes, sir. 

Question. What part did he play in the meetings that were held? 

Answer. Mr. Burrows was an infrequent attender of the meetings, and he 
was considerably vocal and he is an extrovert, but I think he did not particular- 
ly stick to the subject very well and what was going on, and he seemed more 
interested in being an extrovert than sticking to the business at hand. 

Question. Over how long a period of time did you consider that he was a 
person from whom you should collect dues? 

Answer. I would have to guess at that. As I recall, Mr. Burrows commuted 
between Hollywood and New York, and he would probably be out here a few 
months or weeks at a time, and I would say over a period of time that I was 
responsible for dues it was probably not more than 4 to 6 months at the most 
when I would consider him as a member out here. 

Question. And that 4 to 6 months* were not consecutive months as I under- 
stood you to say? 

Answer. I would not say for sure on it. That is purely a guess, and I don't 
recall exactly. 

Now, the chairman of the committee has, at many times during the 
course of our hearings, invited any person whose name had been ad- 
versely mentioned in the course of the testimony to appear before the 
committee, to make denial or explanation, as the witness may think 
proper to those accusations. Promptly upon the taking of this tes- 
timony, we heard from you that you desired to appear before the 
committee. And I assume it is in pursuance to that request that you 
are here now. 

Mr. Burrows. I am, sir. First of all, I would like to say that I 
was very anxious to come back, outside of the fact that I wanted to 
clear up everything. The first time I was subpenaed by this com- 
mittee I got in touch with my lawyer instantly and we asked to come 
down as quickly as possible. That was last year, in March. I would 
just like to say that I was very frightened when I got that first sub- 
pena. I had been around in an atmosphere of people for a while who 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4475 

disliked this committee very much, and I knew nothing about it except 
some of the stuff I had heard, and there had been a lot of— well, I 
might use the word propaganda. So I was pretty seined. But I 
came down here and spoke to the people here and the investigators and 
everybody was very fair to me. There were no monsters here, no 
Fascists, nobody trying to kill me, 

And so, I welcome this chance to come back here. The minute I 
heard Vinson had said something about me, I said I wanted to come 
back and talk to you people because I really want to get this whole 
tiling cleared up. this whole point of my Americanism being under 
suspicion is very painful to me, not just painful economically but pain- 
ful as it is to a guy who loves his country, loves his home, and loves 
his people. 

So I want to get this whole thing cleared up and tell you anything 
I can in answer to this thing. In answer to what Mr. Vinson said, 
let me say the following: I have no recollection, no recollection at all 
of ever applying for party membership. I have no recollection of ever 
having possession of a Communist Party card, although I have been 
told by a private source that somebody had seen a card with my name 
on it, * I have never seen such a card and I don't believe it. If it is 
there, I have just never seen it. 

I have no recollection of paying dues or anything that could be 
called dues. I have no recollection of any formal participation in 
anything that could be called this organization. However, I must 
say I did associate with Communists. I went to various meetings, I 
belonged to a lot of their fronts, I attended lectures, what was called 
study groups or something like that. I entertained for their causes. 
I gave them money for these causes over a short time. And so, if 
someone testifies that he thought I was a Communist, I guess he is 
telling the truth as he sees it. I was around with those fellows, and 
he saw me, and so I can't say that he is lying in that way. 

However, you know, I keep making or trying to make myself clear 
on one point, and that is that it is kind of a stubborn pride on my part 
that makes me happy in the belief that maybe I didn't take the 
final step. 

Mr. Tavenner. By final step, what do you mean ? 

Mr. Bukrows. I mean the actual applying or going through any of 
the ritualistic stuff which I was told and I always understood you had 
to go through before you became a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, how did you learn where the ritualistic 
steps 

Mr. Burroavs. Well, I have read a good deal about it, sir. I have 
read it in testimony from this committee, I have read a lot of articles 
about communism." You know, there was a period when I was around 
with these fellows when the Communists weren't Communists as we 
know them or knew them before. Their role during the war was 
completely one of unity. They attacked anyone who talked about 
strikes, they talked about the war effort and unity and everything, 
and that was their whole approach. So they sounded like super- 
patriots, completely superpatriots. It wasn't until later that they 
began to show themselves. That iron fist, in that intellectual glove, 
you know, began to show itself, and people began to recognize what 
they were. But in those days it wasn't anything like that, and there 
were a lot of these fellows, a lot of them said they were Communists, 

21546— 52— pt. 10 2 



4476 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

a lot of them were on the masthead of the New Masses, other people 
spoke for Communist causes, and there was no hiding of it or anything 
like that. 

But since I have discovered, I have read, about the conspiratorial 
nature of it, my role in this whole thing certainly doesn't jibe with 
the conspiratorial nature of it. 

Mr. Moulder. When Mr. Tavenner asked you about your associa- 
tion, or you referred to your association, was that at Communist 
meetings, Communist cell meetings? 

Mr. Burrows. Not anything that was called a Communist meeting. 
I have since read in testimony of other people, where they use the 
words "open Communist meetings," I don't know if it was anything 
like that. I don't recall ever being at anything that I could say was 
formally set up. 

You know, I have read a lot of stuff about it since. 

Mr. Moulder. What I mean was, was it an organization meeting 
of the Communist Party itself ? 

Mr. Burrows. Not to my recollection. Now, for instance, Owen 
Vinson; I only recall his name because I ran into him in front of the 
Beverly Hills Hotel about a year ago. 

Mr. Moulder. I just want to be specific about what you testified 
to about your associations, the extent of your associations and the kind. 

Mr. Burrows. I was in a great many of those front organizations. 
I was around with people. For instance, back in 1 943, where I testified 
in my 1951 testimony, that I had met a fellow named Samuel Sillen, 
who was one of the editors of New Masses. And he introduced himself 
to me and we met somewhere in the country or somewhere and started 
to talk books. Then he introduced me to Joe North, who was editor 
of the New Masses, and another fellow named John Stewart, I think 
it was, and they would sit around and talk to me, and at one time — 
I refer to my earlier testimony — they said to me, "You ought to be 
much closer to us," that term. 

So I associated with these fellows. When I came to California, 
about a week after I arrived, I was called by Albert Maltz, and 
Albert Maltz said, "Samuel Sillen said for me to get in touch with 
you." 

He came with his wife and visited me at my home. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Burrows, to your knowledge was Samuel Sillen 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, sir, he never said to me in those words, "I 
am a member." I don't ever remember anybody actually saying 
that to me. But I know he was literary editor of the New Masses. 
He wrote a column or something which was called A Marxist Ap- 
proach to the Theater, so I would assume, sir, he was a member of 
the Communist Party. There was no doubt in my mind, I mean. 

Mr. Velde. And Joe North ; did you know him to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. He was planning editor of the New Masses, and I 
would think the managing editor of the New Masses would have to 
be a member of the Communist Party. And when he spoke, he would 
say, "the Communists, we Communists." As a matter of fact, they 
once invited me to a lecture that was given under the auspices of 
the Communist Party in which Earl Browder had a debate with 
George Sokolsky. That is how everybody got along in those days. 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4477 

It was in 1943, I believe, in New York. And it was a big crowd and 
stuff like that. 

Mr. Velde. How about John Stewart. Did you know him to be a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, he wrote a book with a fellow who used to give 
lectures in Hollywood, which I attended, a fellow named Bruce Min- 
ton. Bruce Minton gave lectures on what he called a Marxist Ap- 
proach to History, or something like that. Everything was called 
things like that, you know. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know whether Bruce Minton used any other 
name? 

Mr. Burrows. His real name was Richard Bransten, I believe. 

Mr. Velde. How well did you know him? 

Mr. Burrows. I knew him at his lectures and I was at his home a 
couple of times. His wife was Ruth McKinney, a writer, and they 
invited me there. In Hollywood, in those days, I was invited every- 
where. I attended more parties, I guess, than anyone. The Saturday 
Evening Post, in 1945 or the end of 1945, did an article about me, 
and the fact that I played at parties all over Hollywood. As a matter 
of fact, it got a little out of hand. I used to go to too many, and 
I began to quit going when I started to get asked by people I didn't 
know. You know, people would say "Come to the party," and you 
would sit, and then you would sit down to the party and go to work. 
So I attended at parties, with all kinds of people, the right wing and 
the left wing, and the middle, and all down the line. I guess I never 
turned down an invitation to go to the piano. It was in a period before 
I became a performer, and I guess maybe I was hammy about it, I 
liked to sing. I played up these songs. 

Mr. Velde. Now, specifically with reference to Mr. Vinson, do you 
recall any time he collected or that he attempted to collect dues from 
you for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Not in the terms of dues. The way I remember Mr. 
Vinson is that his wife was named Pauline Hopkins, and she was a 
Radio Writers' Guild member. She came out from Chicago. She got 
very active in the Hollywood Radio Writers' Guild. We used to have 
meetings at their house. I know one specific kind of meeting we did 
Lave at their house was committee of the Radio Writers' Guild. There 
was a ways and means committee meeting which would be held over 
there. I know she had meetings over there of the radio writers' divi- 
sion of HICCASP, which was the Hollywood Independent Citizens 
Committee of the Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions. I re- 
member seeing Vinson there then, somewhere in 1945. I remember 
giving him, I don't know for what, really, if I could state clearly, 
giving him any money. There was an anti-Fascist fund some of those 
guys used to collect for. But I don't remember paying Vinson any- 
thing that vou would call dues. I mean, I think I would remember 
that. 

Also, he says he had trouble collecting dues from me, and that I used 
an excuse that I didn't have the money with me. Well, anyone who 
knows me knows I am not that sort of a fellow. If I had an obligation 
to pay dues, I would pay them. I don't think that point could have 
possibly come up, if I owed dues, not at all. 

Mr. Velde. Now, as to these study groups that you mentioned, you 
studied communism in groups, as I understand your testimony. 



4478 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I used the words "study groups." They were 
groups that, in those days, I guess it was kind of to orientate people 
on what they called a Marxist approach to show business. You know, 
they used to have continual squabbles to the role of a writer and one 
group would hold the writer was a citizen and should be a completely 
active citizen, another group would hold that a writer was purely a 
writer. If you recall, it was a tremendous controversy that Albert 
Maltz had, I think it was, where he said art is a weapon and they said 
art isn't a weapon, or rather he said art isn't a weapon and they said 
it is a weapon. But it was a steady controversy over the role of the 
writer. 

I used to find myself periodically engaged in arguments. I am a 
satirist, and one of my best known satires is something that is a satire 
of a kind of documentary radio program that was very common among 
the liberal and left-wing writers of the day. There was a big tendency 
in those days to do these very pontifical radio programs with every- 
body talking very loud and introducing Thomas Jefferson and Abra- 
ham Lincoln at every opportunity. So I did a satirical thing on that 
at the piano. I remember the first time I did it was for some kind of 
a cause ; I don't know what the cause was exactly, but I did it and there 
was a pretty large left-wing crowd, I guess, and there was kind of a 
quiet in the room. It didn't go as well as it did with others of my 
friends. And then one of the fellows came over, I think it was a 
fellow — I mentioned his name — Henry Blankfort, I think. I believe 
it was Henry. I don't know, because I guess I remember criticism. 
He came over and he said, "I think that is a very bad thing for you 
to do, Abe, you know." 

I said, "Why," and he said, "Because I think it is wrong." 

These guys had no sense of humor about themselves at all. I think 
that is one of the reasons that I wasn't too trusted. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know Henry Blankfort as a member of the 
Communist Party '. 

Mr. Burrows. I know that he testified and took the fifth amend- 
ment, and I know that he has been around ; he was around all of the 
time. It was another case of one of my assumptions, you know. In 
some of the cases I don't know whether I know a fellow was a Com- 
munist from reading about it in this committee's testimony or whether 
I knew it before. It kind of overlaps in your mind, you know. 

Mr. Velde. Now, coming back a little bit more specifically, if you 
can, to the study groups. Do you recall any of the instructors at 
these study groups? And the approximate date that they were held? 

Mr. Burrows. Oh, somewhere in the 1945 period I think. But some 
of them were the study groups that Bruce Minton ran. It was a lec- 
ture, a regularly organized lecture. They were called a study, but he 
just talked. He, at the moment, was engaged in a terrific controversy 
with John Howard Lawson over how history was to be interpreted. 
1 frankly didn't know what either of them meant. I was kind of 
baflled by the whole thing; I truly was. 

Now, that was one group. Then there was a book put out called 
Literature and Arts, by Marx and Engels, or something. It was a 
collection. And a group gathered to discuss this and I think it was 
a group of people from — well, who I largely knew to be radio mem- 
bers of HICCASP, as I recall. I don't remember names. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4479 

In my earlier testimony — I don't remember the names of these spe- 
cific people — but in my earlier testimony when I was asked about some 
of these meetings and gatherings 1 was at, I said that a lot of the 
people were kind of faceless to me, and when I saw the list of people 
that Owen Vinson named as being part of the people in the group that 
I was supposed to have been part of, I knew, maybe, two of them. 
The others I really had not known, and I didn't even know them by 
name. I couldn't recall their faces. 

Mr. Velde. Do you remember them talking in these groups about 
the Duclos letter? 

Mr. Burrows. I don't know whether it was in this group. I remem- 
ber a great deal of conversation, socially and such, when the Duclos 
letter hit. And all over Hollywood there was a good deal of whisper- 
ing and hushing and stuff like that. But I remember the discussion 
in one group, I am trying to remember, on one evening where they 
were trying, one fellow, as I remember, was trying to make sense out 
of this thing. That seemed to be always the role of these guys, to try 
to make sense out of it. They spoke of how this would be a force for 
good. 

I remember way back in 1936-37, I told the committee the last time 
I was here, that I had belonged to the American League for Peace and 
Democracy. When the Nazi-Soviet pact hit, I resigned with a letter 
to the league. But at that time I remember they said when the Nazi- 
Soviet pact was put through, they said, "This is going to be a force for 
peace; a great thing." And the talk after the Duclos letter hit was 
about the same. They said, "This was going to do a great thing." 
I didn't know what anybody meant. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Burrows, you are a fairly intelligent man, I think 
your testimony has shown that. Couldn't you tell from the way their 
party line shifted that you were studying about Marxist communism ? 

Mr. Burrows. Oh, yes, I knew that 

Mr. Velde. And if you were interested in Marxist communism, 
don't vou think it is reasonable to assume, or for us to assume and for 
you to assume, too, that you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burrows. But the study groups I mentioned, Mr. Velde, were 
in 1045, when there was absolutely no word mentioned of Marxist com- 
munism as we know it. It was a case of the writers' aid in the war, 
the writers' role in the war, the writers' role in establishing unity, 
how the writers should treat minorities, how T he should treat the war 
effort, he shouldn't make jokes about gas rationing; stuff like that, you 
know. I attended no such study groups, as far as I know, after 
thinking, when it switched to what seems to be back to a revolutionary 
role. 

Mr. Velde. But you know now. do you not, that in order to get into 
those study groups in the first place, that you had to be an applicant 
or at least considered for membership in the Communist Party or an 
actual member? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I don't deny that I may have been considered 
for membership, and they may have been trying to prepare for it. I 
actually think that because of my work, my humor and my satire, that 
I wasn't very well trusted, I was called "chi-chi," phoney, I will use any 
word I can think of, because I mingled with people who weren't of 
the left. I did satires, for instance, on folk songs in a period when 
the Communist Party had taken the folk song very dearly to its bosom, 



4480 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

because the folk song and the square dance seemed to be a way to 
establish American roots. And I used to rib that and was considered 
very irresponsible for it. 

Mr. Wood. May I ask a question at this point ? During the period 
from 1943 to 1945. what was your annual income? 

Mr. Burrows. In 1943? 

Mr. Wood. Yes, 1943-15, approximately. 

Mr. Burrows. In 1943 I guess I made about $40,000, and then in 
1944 about $50,000, and in 1945 a little over $50,000. 

Mr. Wood. When you made contributions to any organization, did 
you keep a list of them? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. I did when they were charity contributions. 

Mr. Wood. And deducted them from your income tax? 

Mr. Burrows. If they were charity, sir. 

Mr. Wood. And others you didn't ? 

Mr. Burrows. No. And I didn't make many. 

Mr. Wood. That Avere for charity, do you mean? 

Mr. Burrows. That is right. 

Mr. Wood. But you did make some that you knew were not for 
charity ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Can you name some of them? 

Mr. Burrows. I made contributions to the Hollywood Independent 
Citizens Committee. 

Mr. Wood. You knew what you were doing then. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. The Hollywood Independent Citizens 
Committee at that time, when I joined it, was a very broad organ- 
ization. 

Mr. Wood. I understood that ; I want to know if you knew. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. What other organizations ? 

Mr. Burrows. I said the Hollywood Independent Citizens Com- 
mittee. I gave money once to a People's World fund. 

Mr. Wood. You knew what you were doing then ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You knew where the money was going to. 

Mr. Burrows. To the People's World fund ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the New Masses. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You knew where that was going. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. All right, then, categorically did you pay dues to the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. 'Not to my knowledge, sir; I never paid anything I 
thought could be called dues. 

Mr. Wood. Categorically were you ever requested to pay dues to the 
Communist Party as such ? 

Mr. Burrows. *Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Categorically, did you ever decline to pay clues because 
you didn't have the money with you? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, categorically, no, sir. Because it just doesn't 
sound like me. 

Mr. Wood. I am not asking you what it sounds like. Did you or did 
von not? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRT 4481 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Did you refuse to pay dues because you didn't have the 
money with you? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. That is all I have to ask. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to go back a little bit 

Mr. Wood. Wait a minute. I want to ask one other question. Do 
you know Owen Vinson? 

Mr. Burrows. I know him very slightly, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You do know him? 

Mr. Burrows Yes, sir; I met him at his house. 

Mr. Wood. Did you ever give Owen Vinson any money for any 
purpose? 

Mr. Burrows. I may have, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know whether you did or not? 

Mr. Burrows. I couldn't answer that for sure, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You say now under oath that you have no recollection 
now of ever having put into his hands any money for any purpose? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I am not sure of that, sir; I really am not. The 
one thing I am sure about is the thing that you call dues. But as far 
as giving him money for any purpose — if he said he was collecting 
money, I know that every time we had these meetings of any kind, 
whether it was HICCASP, Radio Writers' Guild, somebody was al- 
ways collecting money for something. 

Mr. Wood. I know, but he testified before this committee that you 
paid him Communist Party dues, and that on certain occasions you 
didn't pay him and offered as an excuse why you didn't that you didn't 
have the money with you. Now, categorically, when he said that you 
paid to him money for Communist Party dues, was he telling the truth 
or not? 

Mr. Burrows. He may have thought he was telling the truth. 

Mr. Wood. I didn't ask you that, 

Mr. Burrows. I understand what you are saying. It is very diffi- 
cult for me to say this, because I think when Owen Vinson said he 
thought I was a member of the party 

Mr. Wood. That isn't the question at all, Mr. Burrows. The ques- 
tion I am asking you is: Did you pay him money as Communist 
Party member dues, as he swore before this committee? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wood. These contributions that you made, that you say you 
made, to other organizations, other than charitable organizations, 
were in what amounts? 

Mr. Burrows. What is that, sir? 

Mr. Wood. In what amounts? 

Mr. Burrows. Very small amounts. 

Mr. Wood. By that what do you mean? 

Mr. Burrows'. I mean like $10 or $20. 

Mr. Wood. Well, if you had paid the Communist Party dues in the 
sum of sir», S20, or $25, would not your recollection have been as good 
about that as it would about the other organizations you contributed 
to? 

Mr. Burrows, No, sir. I will tell you. 1 read about the dues; I 
read them described. I read where they were regular things. 1 read 



4482 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION -PICTURE INDUSTRY 

where assessments were made. I think I would remember that. I 
mean, that is specific. 

Mr. Wood. Don't you know you were a member if you did it? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, no, I say if a thing is specific, when it says — 
well, you say to me, I presume you mean that if it were small amounts 
I might not remember any more than I did about the other groups. 

Mr. Wood. If a man had walked up to you in a meeting that you 
knew to be attended by known Communists, and told you that he 
wanted to collect your dues for the Communist Party, in any amount, 
$1, $5, $10, $25, any amount, and you paid it or told him you didn't 
have the money and would pay him later, wouldn't you remember that? 

Mr. Burrows. I think so, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Well, did you do it ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Vinson further testified as follows about the 
dues schedule. He said : 

As I recall, there was a certain set dues based on income up to — I do not 
recall exactly— I think it was $50 a week, which was probably $2 a month. And 
above that there was an assessment or dues of 4 percent of the gross salary. 

. Now, were you ever consulted, or did you ever learn that you were to 
pay 4 percent or any other percent of your gross salary to anyone for 
any purpose ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. My salary in 1945, as I said, must have been 
about $50,000 or better. I am not exactly sure. But that would be a 
considerable sum and I would know about that. I never paid out 
anything like that, sir, or any part of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you know of the requirement to pay a 
certain percentage of dues, or assessment of the group that you were 
attached to or that you became a member of ? Or associated with ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I had heard vague talk about people paying 
part of their money and that is the only way I knew of it. I never 
knew it as something presented to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean that at the time that you were asso- 
ciating with these people, that you heard discussed the payment of 
part of their salaries? 

Mr. Burrows. No, I don't mean that, sir. I don't mean that. I 
mean I had heard talk around. It is one of those things that kind of 
comes through, like a process of osmosis. I knew that big wheel Com- 
munists paid money. I had heard that, I had heard accusations about 
that in the paper. I heard that people gave portions of their income, 
et cetera. I had heard that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you hear that at the time, in 1945 and 
1946 ? 

Mr. Burrows. Did I hear it where, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Any place. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I say I heard it vaguely. I thought you meant 
did I hear it at these particular 

Mr. Tavenner. I couldn't tell whether you meant you heard it 
recently or back in those times. 

Mr. Burrows. I heard it back in those days, too, sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anyone on any occasion ask you to contribute 
a percentage of your salary to any cause? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTR1 4483 

Mr. Wood. By that you mean that there was never any demand 
made upon you to make a contribution of a specific percentage of the 
income that you had to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Never, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Or any other organizations? 

Mr. Burro ws. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. The testimony has reflected that Communist Party 
cells were formed within various professions in Los Angeles, the legal 
profession, the medical profession, the newspaper guild, and in this 
instance among radio writers. 

Now. Mr. Vinson told us that he was a member of that group of 
radio writers, and he named other persons. You stated that you 
knew two of them. Who were, the two? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I knew Sam Moore. I knew him a long time. 
I know him back since 1938. 

Mr. Wood. And who was the other one ? 

Mr. Burrows. I am sorry ; I thought Mr. Tavenner wanted me to 
stop. The other one? I think I— would you read me— — ■ 

Mr. Wood. Well, irrespective of what you testified to before, do you 
know who it was? 

Mr. Burrows. I am not talking about what I testified before. I 
wanted Mr. Tavenner to read me the list, if he would. 

Mr. Wood. You tell us who it was. 

Mr. Burrows. I knew Sam Moore. From the list I remember Sam 
Moore, and I remember Georgia Backus. I remember her; she was 
very active in the American Federation of Radio Artists, and she was 
an actress. I know her both socially and at a lot of HICCxVSP meet- 
ings, and stuff like that. Those are people I really knew. The others, 
I knew of some of them. I saw the list. And some I didn't know at 
all. I just have no recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know Sam Moore to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Burri iws. Not to be a member of the Communist Party, in the 
sense that he never said to me, "I am a member of the Communist 
Party,'' or showed me a Communist Party card. He was active in a 
lot of these Communist things, and he seemed to be — the word you 
use is he was around, you know. He seemed to be always around. 
And Sam Mas the first one Avho ever introduced me to — took me to the 
Hollywood Writers' Mobilization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any conversation with Sam Moore 
with regard to testifying before this committee? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. The last time I saw Sam Moore was right 
after I had made up my plans to come down to Washington and testify 
before this committee. I got the subpena, got in touch with my lawyer, 
and we agreed that we were going to ask for immediate hearing in 
Washington. We came down well in advance of the date we were 
called. And Sam called me up, I hadn't seen him for a number of 
years, and he said he would like to see me. I said, "I have a rehearsal 
today, at the Forty-eighth Street Theater." He said could I see him 
a few minutes, and I said I would meet him. We met at Moore's 
Restaurant right next to the theater. Sam said, "I hear you got * 
subpena.'" I said, "Yep," and he said "I got one, too." 

21546— 52— pt. 10 3 



4484 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

I hadn't known that, it wasn't in the paper. He said, "What are 
yon going to do with it?" 

I said, "Well, I think I have to keep that to myself." 

He said, "Well, I think the only thing to do is to stick with the 
fifth amendment." 

I said, "Sam, it is something I don't agree with you on, but I can't 
argue with you." 

It got very cold in the restaurant and I got up, and as a matter of 
fact we ordered coffee and I didn't finish the coffee, I paid the bill and 
went to my rehearsal and he left, and I haven't seen him since. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he take the initiative of getting in touch with 
you at that time ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. He called me. I hadn't seen him in a long 
time. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know what the provision of the fifth amend- 
ment is ? 

Mr. Burrows. I believe it is refusing to testify, it is a refusal to 
testify on the ground that what you say might incriminate you. 

Mr. Wood. You knew that then, did you not ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Why would he ask you to avail yourself of the protection 
of the fifth amendment, in appearing before this committee ? 

Mr. Burrows. His theory was that everybody ought to stick together. 

Mr. Wood. Everybody ? 

Mr. Burrows. Everybody. 

Mr. Wood. You mean the pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
in Los Angeles ought to hide behind the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, Mr. Wood, if I may point out, back in the days 
when the first group of people from Hollywood were called, I remember 
reading a thing about them, in which one of them said — whether it was 
a public statement or what, I forget what — in which they said that 
everybody, regardless of whether they had been members of the Com- 
munist Party or whether they had never been members, were to stick 
together in bucking the committee. 

Mr. Wood. And do you know there were 12 of them that came here 
and did that? 

Mr. Burrows. What is that ? 

Mr. Wood. Did you know 12 of them came from Hollywood before 
this committee and claimed the protection of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Burrows. I didn't know how many had done it, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Did you know that every one of them have been iden- 
tified in sworn testimony before this committee that they were mem- 
bers, and a lot of them have come before the committee voluntarily 
since they served their sentence in jail and admitted their membership? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir ; I know that. 

Mr. Wood. Why would this party be asking you or suggesting to 
you that you also avail yourself of the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. Burrows. Because I think the Communists — I don't know i f 
everybody who was subpenaed back in, for instance 1948, whenever 
that was, was a Communist or not. But I know the Communists 
in their requests said they thought everybody should refuse to talk 
to the committee. 

Mr. Wood. Every Communist? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4485 

Mr. Burrows. No; everyone, regardless. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know a single human being in the State of Cali- 
fornia who has been subpenaed before this committee that wasn't a 
Communist who availed himself of the protection of the Constitution? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir ; I don't know of any of the background. All 
I know is that I have never asked to avail myself of it since the be- 
ginning. I said to my lawyer, you know, sometimes it seems it might 
be easier for me if I just said, "Well, yes, I give up." 

Mr. Wood. Now, Mr. Burrows, let's get down to cases. What this 
man wanted you to say here or suggested that you say here was that 
you refuse to answer the question as to whether or not you were a 
member of the Communist Party or had been, on the ground that to 
do so would incriminate you. 

Mr. Burrows. I don't think that connotation was meant. 

Mr. Wood. I understand. But you say you knew what the fifth 
amendment was. 

Mr. Burrows. I knew it. 

Mr. Wood. And you knew then what he was referring to; did 
you not? 

Mr. Burrows. I don't believe he was referring to this aspect of it. 
What he was referring to, I believe, was that a Communist Party 
member, in the fifth amendment, discovered a way to refuse to answer 
the questions of the committee without being cited for contempt, and 
I believe they would like everyone who is called, and that includes 
non-Communists, to refuse to answer this committee. 

Mr. Wood. Now, let's follow that up just for a minute; permit me 
to follow it up for a minute. If I am called for any investigation 
that is empowered by law to administer an oath, and I take that oath 
that I will swear to the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, and then I am asked a question whether I am a Communist 
or not, and I say I won't answer that because to do so would involve 
criminal prosecution against me, or might have a tendency to sub- 
ject me to criminal prosecution, is there any alternative in your think- 
ing as to whether or not I am telling the truth, if I am a member 
of the party? If I am not a member of the party, I am swearing 
to a lie? 

'Sir. Burrows. No alternative ; no, sir ; none at all. 

Mr. Wood. All right. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Burrows, have you heard of branch D of the Com- 
munist Party of Los Angeles, the northwest section? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir'; I haven't. I was asked that question in my 
last testimony. The names and the symbols mean nothing to me. 
I would like to adjust one little note, if I may, something I was paying 
to Judge Wood before, that it is possible, just like Owen Vinson 
said, that Sam Moore may have assumed I was a Communist, Judge 
Wood. That is entirely possible. And that would explain, sir, the 
difference 

Mr. Wood. Why would he assume it? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I was there. I was around a good many of 
those things. I am sorry I was, you know, but I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Georgia Backus known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party? 



4486 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. Not known. However, I kind of assumed it. She 
was very intense about everything, you know, the kind of thing you 
associate with that. She was very intense and terribly active. 
« Mr. Tavexxer. Well, she was one of those named by Mr. Vinson 
as a member of this radio group of which he claimed you were a 
member. Do you recall attending meetings at which she was present? 
■ Mr. Burrows. I recall meetings of the radio writers' group of 
HICCASP at Pauline Hopkins' house, where Georgia Backus was 
present. I don't recall what kind of meetings other than that I was 
with her at. I saw Georgia at meetings. You know, she was at 
everything. I saw her at meetings a couple of times a week. 
\ .Mr. Tavexxer. With what regularity did these meetings occur that 
you attended I 

Mr. Burrows. Well, no regularity, sir. Mr. Vinson himself says 
i,t. He says I was commuting, but actually I never attended any of 
these meetings with any regularity. I wasn't commuting. 

Mr. T \\ i:\xer. Who acted as a chairman at those meetings? 
j Mr. Burrows. I don't recall any definite chairman. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you acquainted witli Hy Alexander? 
i Mr. Burrows. I knew him as a radio writer, slightly, not well. 
, Mr. Tavexxer. Did you attend meetings at which he was present? 
v Mr. Burrows. Various meetings. He was an active member of the 
^ladio Writers' Guild. 

.. Mr. Tavexxer. Was he chairman of any of the meetings that you 
attended? 

Mr. Burrows. Not to my knowledge. He wasn't the type of fellow 
that was a chairman. He was a kind of quiet fellow as I recall. I 
don't know him well, but I recall him being a very quiet fellow. I 
think he was married to Georgia Backus, was he not? I think so. 
He was married to somebody. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Burrows, do I understand you to say that you have 
never signed an application for the Communist Party ? 

•Mr. Burrows. Not to my knowledge, sir. I think I would remem- 
ber signing such an application. 

Mr. Velde. Then you are pretty sure you never signed such an 
application? 

Mr. Burrows. Pretty sure, sir. 

Mr. Velde. And, furthermore, are you as equally as sure that you 
never signed the Communist Party card, yourself, signed your name 
on a Communist Party card? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. As I said before,. somebody told me they 
saw a card with my name on it. First of all, I don't know how any- 
body would have a card that I signed, and I think — well, let me put 
ijt this way, I think to sign a Communist Party card would have seemed 
like the height of insanity to me, even though I was around and listen- 
ing and involved in the fronts and entertaining with them, I wasn't 
really one of the fellows, 

Mr. Wood. Do you sign documents that you don't know what they 
are? 

Mr. Burrows. What, sir? 

Mr. Wood. Do you sign instruments without knowing what they 
are ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Not ever, do you? 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 448^ 

Mr. Burrows. No. 

Mr. Wood. You read what you sign. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Then why are you indefinite about whether you signed 
it? * " : 

Mr. Burrows. I am not indefinite about it, 

Mr. Wood. You say now categorically you did not do it? 

Mr. Burrows. To my recollection I never signed any such thing. 

Mr. Wood. That is still indefinite. You just testified that you do 
not sign documents without knowing what is in them, and what they 
are. On that basis, will you tell us whether or not you signed an 
application for membership in the Communist Party or signed a Com- 
munist membership card? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You did not do it? 

Mr. Burrows. I have no recollection of doing such thing. 

Mr. Wood. I asked you did you do it or not. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I say, sir 1 

Mr. Wood. Do you want to leave the committee in doubt? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir; I don't. 

Mr. Wood. Then did you or not ? 

Mr. Burrows. I didn't, 

Mr. Wood. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Reuben Ship? 

Mr. Burrows. No; not acquainted. I knew Reuben to be a radio 
writer. I have never attended any meetings with him that I knew of. 
I don't think I would know what he looked like, if I saw him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Charles Glenn? 

Mr. Burrows. I knew of him slightly. I remember him around 
some of these literature discussions. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did these discussions regarding literature 
take place? 

Mr. Burrows. What do you mean by when ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Under what circumstances. 

Mr. Burrows. Somebody, either at the guild or HICCASP or 
something would say a group of us are getting together for a talkfest 
Monday night or something like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who would notify you about those meetings to 
discuss literature and other things? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I sometimes would get a card, which would 
say, at so forth and so forth, literature and art is going to be discussed, 
or a new book or something. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were these meetings held ? 

Mr. Burrows. In various homes. From Owen Vinson's name com- 
ing up, I remember that some of them were held in his house. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of other houses, the names 
of the owners of the homes? , 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. As a matter of fact, I made the point in 
my last testimony that a lot of them were held in places that didn't 
seem to be homes. They seemed to be houses but not homes. They 
were sparsely furnished. I remember one on the Crescent Heights 
Boulevard or something. Nobody seemed to live there. The reason 
I remember Vinson's house was he was the one who put up the chairs, 
you know. So you figure i t. is the host who is doing that. 



4488 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Tavenner. Were any meetings of that character held at your 
home ? 

Mr. Burrows. There were HICCASP meetings held at my house, 
but none of these literature meetings that I know of. HICCASP 
meetings, Radio Writers' Guild meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Elizabeth Glenn ? 

Mr. Burrows. I wasn't acquainted with her. She was in my house 
once, I think, and I met her. She was never at any of the meetings 
that we were talking about, any of the gatherings. I never knew her. 
But she used to kind of wheel around at benefits and big functions. 
She seemed to be a person of some authority. 

Mr. Tavenner. She was. She has been shown to have been a func- 
tionary of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Burrows. I can remember her, because she was an exception- 
ally large lady. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her reason for being at your house? 

Mr. Burroavs. She came to my house one night with some other 
people. You see, a lot of these people on the left would show up at 
my place socially, periodically, and she was brought by somebody. 
I think she was brought by Richard Bransten, by Bruce Minton, at 
the time she came. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of her visit ? 

Mr. Burrows. They dropped by. It was after some kind of thing, 
where everybody dropped by at somebody's house for a drink, and 
I knew him, and I guess I told him to drop by for a drink and I 
know her. It was after a rally or something, and he brought her. 
The only thing I remember is that she was engaged at the time — 
she introduced herself to me, as I remember at that time, and she 
said, "Did you read Albert Maltz' new book?" Albert Maltz had 
just written the Cross and the Arrow, I think it w T as, a book about 
war in Germany, and I said "No," and she said it was terrible. That 
is all I know. She was very critical of it, and I guess I gave her a 
book, and that was all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know at that time that she was a func- 
tionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. It was one of the things you felt. I don't know 
about the word functionary, but I assumed she was a wheel. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Tavenner, I guess this would be a good time to 
recess. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m. the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(The subcommitte reconvened, pursuant to recess, at 2:10 p. m., 
Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, James B. Frazier, Jr., and 
Harold H. Velde being present.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee is called to order and hearing re- 
sumed with and by a subcommittee composed of three members, Mr. 
Frazier, Mr. Velde, and Mr. Moulder as acting chairman. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4489 

TESTIMONY OF ABEAM S. BURROWS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

MARTIN GANG— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Burrows, I was interrogating you about the 
other persons whose membership in the radio group of the Communist 
Party has been testified to by Mr. Vinson. Among them is a person 
by the name of Billy Wolff. Were you acquainted with Billy Wolff? 

Mr. Burrows. Only as a radio writer. I knew him as a guy trying 
to get a job in radio, and he also belonged to the guild. I didn't know 
him in any political capacity. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated in the earlier part of your testimony 
that most of those whose names were mentioned by Mr. Vinson were 
faceless people, as far as you were concerned. 

Mr. Burrows. Sort of, sir; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, could Mr. Wolff have attended any of the 
meetings which you attended and you not have recognized him as 
Mr. Wolff? 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Burrows. He could have, sir. He could have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Stanley Waxman? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Dave Ellis? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. A radio actor and writer ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir ; never heard the name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Lee Barrie? 

Mr. Burrows. I vaguely remember a radio actress by that name or 
a singer or something by that name, but I could not really place her, 
sir, not in any real knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Lynn Whitney? 

Mr. Burrows. She was a quite well-known radio actress. She 
worked, I believe, on some shows that I did, and also I believe she 
was a member of the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee, I 
think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall her having been in attendance at any 
of the meetings which you described? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has she been at any meetings in your house, in your 
home ? 

Mr. Burrow t s. No, sir ; she may have been in my home socially. She 
was a radio actress, and she might have come socially with some people. 
I vaguely remember something like that, sir, but I don't recall her in 
any meeting connection as far as I remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. I previously asked you a question regarding your 
knowledge of Charles Glenn. Did you know at the time that you 
knew Mr. Glenn that he w r as affiliated with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burrows. I remember assuming so. He sounded like a fellow 
who was very politically conscious. As a matter of fact, in discus- 
sions, I remember, on this literature and art thing, now that you bring 
it up, he was one of the fellows that led the thing. I vaguely re- 
member him, not too well, but I do remember him, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he doing radio writing at the time that you 
knew him? 



4490 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. As far as I know, he was never employed in radio. 
I don't know of any shows he might have written. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What did lie do, if yon know \ 

Mr. Burrows. I don't know. I remember at the time I kind of used 
to wonder. You know, there were a lot of people around that I 
mentioned who called themselves radio actors, radio writers, but who 
actually don't write in radio or act in radio but they call themselves 
actors and writers. I don't recall this fellow, for instance, ever writ- 
ing for radio. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "Were you acquainted with Elaine Gonda \ 

Mr. Burrows. I made a note of that when I saw her name. I re- 
membered her when I read Charles Glenn's name because I think that 
they were having a kind of romance or something, it struck me, be- 
cause I remember seeing them sitting 

Mr. Tavexxer. Well, they became married, didn't they? 

Mr. Burrows. Really? Well, that is the end of the romance. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That was Elaine Gonda. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I remember her in connection with — I don't 
quite remember what she looked like, but I remember they used to sit 
and hold hands, I think. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What type of meetings were these at which this 
occurred ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I think that they were present together at this 
one study group that I told you about which was based on this litera- 
ture and art book. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you acquainted with Gene Stone, another 
person identified by Mr. Vinson? 

Mr. Burrows. I vaguely remember his name. The reason I know 
his name now is because I heard gossip around Radio Row that he 
had married Pauline Hopkins, who was married to Owen Vinson. 
That is how I remember his name. I never knew of any work he did. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you acquainted with Jack Robinson? 

Mr. Burrows. He was a radio gag writer. He tried out for Duffy's 
Tavern, when I was writing it, and didn't get the job, but I remember 
him at guild meetings and stuff like that. I don't remember him in 
any political connection. 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Vinson also identified Annette Harper as a 
member. 

Mr. Burrows. That name doesn't mean anything to me, sir. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you acquainted with Paul Marion? 

Mr. Burrows. Paul Marion I knew as an actor. He was around in 
the Actor's Lab, I believe. I saw him in a performance and I remem- 
ber he once came up and auditioned for me. I think it was for Duffy's 
Tavern, something like that, something I was to do. I used to hire 
actors. That is how I recall Paul. I never remember any political 
meetings with Paul Marion. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. Paul Marion testified the same with regard to 
you: that you had not been present at the time he was present, al- 
though Paul Marion testified that he was a member of this same 
group. 

Mr. Burrows. I see. Well, T didn't know. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I would like to go back for a moment to your work 
in New York City. You stated while in New York City you met 
Samuel Sillen, and also Joe North. Now, when was that? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4491 

Mr. Burrows. 1943. I met Sam Sillen somewhere in the country. 
I got a feeling it was somewhere up in the suburbs. I am not sure 
now. He was a very intelligent fellow. He was literary critic for the 
New Masses at the time. I didn't know it the night I met him. I 
knew that this was a very bright fellow who was saying good words 
about good books, when we talked, and I found him good company. 
He and his wife called me a week later and asked me over, and then 
I found out who he was. We talked, and he introduced me, as I say, 
to these other people from the New Masses, and they asked me to 
their houses; and we had — I don't know — seven or eight sessions of 
talk. They talked about the New Masses. As a matter of fact, if I 
recall. Joe North wanted me to do a column for the New Masses, 
which I wouldn't do. They said they hadn't had a humor column for 
a long time. You know, there wasn't anything very humorous in the 
publication. So, he asked me would I consider doing a humor column. 
I remember that now. And I said "No." 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the first time that you met Mr. Sillen? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And can you state the circumstances under which 
you were invited to this first meeting? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, it wasn't a meeting. It was at his house. And 
he said "Come for dinner." I came over with my former wife. We 
had dinner, and there were a few people there. Then Joe North, John 
Stewart — I don't remember who else, a couple of people— we all sat 
around and talked. Then, the next time, he called me about 3 days 
later, and I think I went up to the New Masses office. I think, when 
Joe North asked me would I be interested in maybe doing a humor 
column, he said "A bright guy like you," and I think I recall then 
(hat they used the words "A bright guy like you who is widely ac- 
cepted." I believe that was the kind of phrase he used. 

You know how tough it is dredging up things from this far back ; 
but, as you talk to me about it, I follow through. And then another 
time I met — it must have been about six or seven times I met him be- 
fore I went to California. Not much more; it couldn't have been, 
more or less perhaps. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you refuse to write the column for New 

Mr. Burrows. I didn't want to do a column for New Masses, even 
though I knew then — you will see, in any records you have of me, I 
never wrote for a Communist publication. 

Mr. Tavenner. But, if you would associate with all of these per- 
sons who were known to you to be members of the Communist Party, 
if you would contribute to the support of the People's World and the 
New Masses, it isn't much of a distinction between those things and 
writing a column ; is there ? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir; there is, because it is my mind and it is my 
work. I would like to make one point. You see, in all of this, even 
in that, I never went all the way, I feel. I wouldn't want to leave this 
committee with the impression I was trying to evade anything or deny 
anything that was said about me. If Owen Vinson thought I was a 
Communist, I think he had a right to assume so. I think the other 
fellows around him had a right to assume it. I was around with them. 
I don't want to deny it. I am here under oath, and I know what 

21 540 — 52— pt. 10 4 



4492 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

it looks like; I know what my associations make it look like. And so I 
really want that understood : that I didn't come here to be evasive. 
I don't want to deny anything like that. I just hold up on that one 
little thing: that I just got the feeling that I didn't go all the way. 
Maybe it is a matter of pride, something I will go to my grave with, 
sir ; but it was what I feel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I understand. But now, having taken the 
position that you do not admit having been a member of the Com- 
munist Party, but that you do admit that you were, in many respects, 
either similar to a member if not actually a member 

Mr. Burrows. Or I was considered a member, too. I will admit 
that. When you use the word "admit," sir, I don't deny anything; I 
don't deny that these fellows assumed that I was a member of it when 
Judge Wood questioned me today. I got a sharp insight. It is 
something that may be hard to believe, but it hit me like a flash when 
he said to me "Why did Sam Moore come to you?" It struck me I 
had never asked myself why did he come to me, and I realize I know 
Sam Moore thought I was a member, or he wouldn't have come to 
me. I think the judge was right. 

Mr. Tavenner. .What you are saying in substance is that .you 
believe Sam Moore had a right to think you were a member? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, from looking at the objective facts, sir, if I 
may talk like a lawyer, I guess, from the objective facts and the 
material things that exist — I am here under oath — there were all of 
my associations, the people I was around with. They could have 
thought I was a member; they really could have. I don't deny that 
they could have thought so, and I don't deny that my own sloppiness 
of action, my own thoughtlessness, or whatever it was, gave them the 
right to think I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let's go back for a moment to these seven or eight 
meetings with Samuel Sillen and Joe North. Did they — that is, 
Samuel Sillen and Joe North — have reason to believe, as you look 
upon it now, that you were a member of the Communist Party at 
that time ? 

Mr. Burrows. I don't think so, and I will tell you why. When you 
say "meetings" — you see, when I speak of meetings, in Hollywood I 
had the HICCASP meetings, Radio Guild, a thousand other things, 
studio groups, and I don't know what got involved, but in New York 
there were no meetings, nothing that could be called a meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. You told us this morning that while you and Mr. 
Samuel Sillen and Joe North were together they suggested to you 
that you should be one of them. 

Mr. Burrows. They said "Why aren't you closer to us." And I 
know that that follows, because when I got to California Albert 
Maltz called me at the request of Sillen. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you knew Albert Maltz was a member of the 
Communist Party when he called you in California? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir; I assumed so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anything else occur in California that would 
lead you to believe that some word had been sent from someone in 
New York regarding your interest in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I remember once being called by a girl; 1 
don't remember her name. I remember testifying to this the last time. 
Some girl called, and she said : "Wouldn't you like to get in touch with 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4493 

some progressive people?" She was the one who told me about Bruce 
Minton's lectures, I think. 

The other contact I have in California, When you say "Did any- 
thing else occur in California?" a thing occurs to me which was 
later— but which goes again into the fact that they assumed I was 
with them, which was in about li)4(>, I think it was. Yes; it was 1946j 
I got a call from a fellow named Abe Polonsky, who has been named, 
and who has testified here, or has refused to ; I don't know what. But 
I got a call from him. I knew him. When he came back from the 
war he was a pretty interesting guy. He had been with the Office 
of Psychological Warfare, in London. I think it was London. I 
met him in some people's homes and he had a similar background 
to mine, in youth. He had been to City College and had written in 
radio. And then he called me and I knew that he was a — the word 
that was used then was "a progressive." I knew he was around these 
things ; he became part of the mobilization and things like that. He 
called me, and he said : "I would like to have a drink with you. Where 
are you going to be this afternoon?" I said: "I am going up to 
Schwab's Drug Store." That is up on Sunset Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you speaking in California or New York ? 

Mr. Burrows. California. He said, "Will you drop by for a drink," 
and I said "All right." I stopped by his house. I first said I was 
going to be doing some shopping. He said "Just stop by for a few 
minutes." 

When I came to his house he was there, and beside him was a fellow 
named John Stapp, who, I was told by this committee about a year 
and a half ago, was an organizer or something — some official in the 
Communist Party. I never knew him ; he never spoke two words to 
me. He was a kind of violent, thin man. I remember seeing him 
once at some kind of benefit. And then he was sitting beside Polonsky 
and Polonsky said to me, "Abe, why don't we ever see you around?" 

I said, "Well, I am busy." 

He said, "You are not; you are not working in any of the organi- 
zations." 

He made a point of it I wasn't working in the organization any- 
more, or HICCASP. I said I was working very hard, very busy — 
the kind of evasive answers you give a guy in his house, you know. 
And he said, "Tell me frankly, Abe, don't you think there should 
be a left wing in the Communist Party?" 

I said, "Physically, I think that in every government there should 
be a left and right. That balances each other. But I dont' think the 
Communist Party is that." 

Incidentally, I made a note that I never got a drink. I was invited 
for a drink, you see. And so, all of a sudden, it got very chilly. He 
turned to Stapp and he said : "Well, at least he thinks there ought to 
be a left wing." 

And Stapp got up, and it was very funny, kind of like in a gangster 
movie. Stapp hadn't said a word to me. He just kind of sat there 
like — I don't know. And he turned and he walked out, just nodding 
to me. He hadn't said one word. And I said, "Well, I got to get to 
my errand," and he said, "O. K. ; so long." That is the last time I 
ever saw him. But he was there questioning me— this was about 194(> — 
questioning me on my lack of activity. I was kind of surprised at the 



4494 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

way he spoke to me. I couldn't quite figure out what he was getting 
at ; but that was it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't you think that Polonsky took you to John 
Stapp, a functionary of the Communist Party, and you were asked 
questions of the character that you were actually considered a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party at that time ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, in this conversation nobody spoke like that; 
nobody said that to me. There was a kind of reservation and cau- 
tion, feeling me out how I felt about things, and when I left there 
I will tell you I felt pretty good when I left that house. I felt kind 
of disconnected from even knowing these people, because I wasn't 
seeing them socially anymore. You see, for personal reasons — it is 
very odd; there is a whole other thing, but for personal reasons I 
wasn't seeing any of these people socially anymore. So, that end of it 
was gone completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Am I correct in assuming there that you are saying 
that your connection with the people that you had been connected 
with before was terminated at this time; is that what you are saying? 

Mr. Burrows. In all ways, you see, it was terminated even before 
this Polonsky visit. It was terminated socially, and then I had no — 
well, you know, sometimes when you cease being active in organiza- 
tions like HICCASP you may still go on seeing the people socially, 
but even that aspect of it in my life was terminated socially. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, were there any other occurrences where you 
came in contact with functionaries of the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia which you have not already told us? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I don't remember if there were some in my 
previous testimony that I referred to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Carl Winter? 

Mr. Burrows. That story I told last time; yes. When I first came 
out to Hollywood, right after I had spoken to Maltz, and seen him and 
stuff like that, somebody called me and said — used the name — I think 
he said "Sparks" — Nemmy Sparks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Nemmy Sparks? 

Mr. Burrows. Was it Nemmy? I don't know. We weren't on nick- 
name terms. Nemmy sounds odd. But, anyway, he said that the Com- 
munist Party was putting on a series of radio programs which Carl 
Winter was going to speak at. He was going to be the speaker. He 
wanted somebody like me — you know, I was even then known as a kind 
of radio doctor. Later I got a reputation as a play doctor. I was 
fixing up shows and stuff like that ; I was a trouble-shooter. In addi- 
tion to doing Duffy's Tavern, I was a trouble-shooter on things, and 
was pretty well known as a director. He knew I was a man interested 
in progressive things, and I guess he got that from Sillen, too. They 
were getting up a committee of a broad base. The words "broad base" 
were used by these guys a good deal. "Broad base" meant Communists 
or non-Communists, I guess. They say "broad base." They were get- 
ting up a committee to advise Mr. Winter and support this radio broad- 
cast. So, I said, "What can I do?" They said, "Can you spare a few 
minutes to give us your prof essional opinion on the speech, and maybe 
give Mr. Winter a few pointers?" 

So, I said "Yes," as I always did, and I went over. They gave me 
the address, and I went to a house. I guess it was Winter's house, 
because he was sitting in his shirt sleeves. His wife was there ; Sparks 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4495 

was there, and I vaguely remember the house. It is kind of fuzzy. 
I remember him showing me the sketch. I remember him being very 
surly. I use "surly'' because he wasn't friendly. If a fellow asks me 
to do him a favor and look at his speech, I figure he would be friendly, 
but he wasn't. Again nobody even gave me a drink of water. I sat 
there, and it was very odd. It was right after I came to Hollywood, 
and I don't think I had even joined the Mobilization yet. However, 
there I was. I don't know — maybe largely curiosity. 

1 sat there with him, and he said, "What do you think of this?" So 
I looked at the speech and right away it is one of those things that 
is hard to read, and it has everything in it. It has the poll tax in 
it, you know he is talking about the war, and it has everything in it, 
all kinds of things, you know. It even had a thing, I remember, and 
it has been a funny thing, about rents in Harlem. He is talking on 
California, about the war. and he is trying to get it all into 15 min- 
utes. I start to doze after reading the first paragraph. So he said, 
"Now. look.'' and I said, "Well, it looks — ." He said, "I don't want 
your opinion on the contents," and he talked to me as if I was some 
kind of an idiot, as if to say "Look, I want your radio technique and 
you are a good director, but you don't know a darn thing about what 
I am going to talk about, so don't stick your nose in." 

I said, "Well, sir, it looks a little long to me," and then he started 
to read. He said, "I am going to work slowly, because I have a very 
bad speaking voice." 

So I said what was probably an unfortunate thing; I said, "Why 
are you delivering it?" 

Well, immediately I stepped on somebody's toes, because it seemed 
he selected himself. I thought they would get the best one, but that 
isn't the way it would work. These guys are hams, too. So I left, 
and I never had a chance to do anything with his speech. I heard it 
subsequently on the air and it was as dull as I thought it would be. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you know 7 how they obtained your name? 

Mr. Burrows. I think so. I told you, because Albert Maltz called 
me when Sam Sillen referred him to me. My guess is that I was 
referred by Sam Sillen to Albert Maltz as a very likely prospect. I 
would say that that was the fact. 

Mr. Tavexner. Did you do any work on Winter's speech at all ? 

Mr. Burrows. No ; none at all. He wouldn't let me. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you have occasion to see Mr. Winter or Nemmy 
Sparks, or Mr. Nemmy Sparks after that? 

Mr. Burrows. Never, sir. 

Mr. Tavexner. Did you see John Stapp on any occasion other than 
the time you mentioned ? 

Mr. Burrow 7 s. No. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you an instructor at the People's Education 
Center in Hollywood? 

Mr. Burrows. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who solicited you for that work? 

Mr. Burrow t s. I don't remember the man's name. I discussed that 
the last time I w r as here. It w T as somebody who was executive director. 
The name "Kenneth," I think, came into mind, but I don't know the 
whole name. 

He said to me, "We want to have a class in radio comedy writing, 
how would you like to do it?" I was always a kind of frustrated 



4496 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

teacher, so I said, "I will take a whack at it." I taught it for a semester 
and a half ; I taught radio comedy writing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what qualifications a person Ayas 
required to have to teach in that particular school. People's Education 
Center? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. I think that the basic thing was, actually, 
to get people who would do it and not ask for their money. For in- 
stance, I was told I was to be paid. I never did get paid. And I think 
there was that trouble in getting teachers. At the time, however, the 
school was a new experiment in adult education, so-called, and I under- 
stood, they told me, they had a veteran's license and things like that, 
and I was to teach shipyard workers, and I kind of liked the idea. 
But there was no question with me about qualifications in relations 
to that, I taught it, I kind of enjoyed it for a little while, and then 
I got tired of it. In my second semester, as I recall it, it took on a 
stronger coloration. I think they began to give a course in Marxist 
history, as I recall, and I remember I left it right in the middle. I left 
my class my second semester right in the middle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was your superior? 

Mr. Burrows. Nobody was my superior. There was an executive 
director of the school. I never could remember his name. I was shown 
that. It was nobody I knew well. Is there a name Kenneth some- 
thing ? I don't know why that name sticks in my head. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; there is a person whose first name is Kenneth, 
but there may be a number of people by that name, so I wouldn't want 
to guess at it. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I don't know. I taught there for a while. 
I kind of enjoyed it for a little while, standing up there. I was the 
kind of guy who loved to pop off. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you state that you were at one time affiliated 
with the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization ? 

Mr. Burroavs. Yes, sir ; 1943, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you were treasurer of the organization. 

Mr. Burrows. For a little while. Emmett Lavery was president and 
I was treasurer of it at that time, for a little while. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Hollywood Writers' 
Mobilization after the war? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Richard Collins testified at some length before 
the committee regarding a way in which that organization was used 
by the Communist Party at the close of the war. Are you familiar 
with any of the details of it ? 

Mr. Burroavs. No. The fight in the mobilization, and I kneAv there 
was stuff going on, I could hear vague buzzings about it in Holhvood 
that took place after I ceased to have any activity there. When I 
joined it it was an organization which had been formed in 1941 on Pearl 
Harbor Day to AA'rite scripts for the Avar. I joined it and at the time I 
believe Emmett Lavery aajis president and I became treasurer. I didn't 
do any treasuring, I mean that Avas just kind of a title. I didn't have 
anything to do with money. I wrote some scripts for them and I made 
a speech for the Writers' Congress under the auspices of the Holly- 
AAood Writers' Mobilization. There was a big congress of writers at 
the UCLA. I made a speech on humor in wartime, in which I dis- 
cussed the use of humor in Avartime, and how Avriters by being irre- 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4497 

sponsible could cause a good deal of harm, by attacking rationing and 
stuff like that in wartime. And that is all. That was my only connec- 
tion with the mobilization. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have referred to your activity with Hollywood 
Independent Citizens" Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Profes- 
sions. Were you on the executive council of that organization? 

Mr. Burrows. I think I might have been. I think I might have 
been. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who solicited your participation in 
that? 

Mr. Burrows. In the Hollywood 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Burrows. I don't know. A bunch of people in the guild. When 
that thing was formed, almost everybody belonged to it. It was 
almost a social thing, sir. They had big functions and people came 
and said "Yes" and gave money and entertained. I entertained for 
them a lot. That was very broad, as I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the January 25, 1945, issue of the Daily 
Worker, you were among a number of people from Hollywood who 
signed a telegram to the President of the United States to terminate 
the proceedings that were then being undertaken to deport Harry 
Bridges. Do you recall authorizing the use of your name on that 
telegram ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean you do not recall? Or that it did not 
occur ? 

Mr. Burrows. I think it did not occur. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the issue I referred 
to; and if you will look at the last paragraph, you will see the fol- 
lowing language : "Among those signing the wire were Abe Burrows, 
writer of Duffy's Tavern Radio Show," and the names of other people. 
Will you examine it? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir; I have seen this before. I didn't sign any 
such wire. 

Mr. Tavenner. If your name was used in connection with it, it was 
without your authorization ? 

Mr. Burrows. Without my knowledge or permission. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any connection with the American- 
Russian Institute of Southern California ? 

Mr. Burrows. None whatsoever, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated in any way with the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Burrows. I entertained for them, I think, once or twice. I 
never was affiliated with them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the circumstances under which you 
became affiliated with that organization or were solicited to become 
affiliated? 

Mr. Burrows. I never was solicited to become affiliated with them. 
I never became a member of that organization, sir. I remember some- 
body calling me and asking me to entertain at a benefit. You know, 
I didn't use to ask in those days. It turned out to be for the Joint 
Ant i -Fascist Refugee Committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who solicited your help? 



4498 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. I don't know. Somebody called me and said, "Abe, 
would you do a benefit for Saturday night?" — some social friend. To 
this day I do thousands of things, but I now watch them. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you begin watching them ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, as soon as I realized what this whole thing was 
about, right after the end of the war, right with the end of the war. 
I would like to show you. Right after the war I immediately, when 
the Communist Party was completely opposed to building up Ameri- 
can defenses, I did a whole series of radio shows for the United States 
Army for Army recruiting. I recruited soldiers and marines, wrote 
the shows, prepared them, and put them on for the Army. I got a 
citation from the United States Army for it. I did many recruiting 
shows. I have here, for instance — this is 10-17, when the Communist 
Party really changed their whole way of thinking. It is from the 
Poor Richard Club of Philadelphia, which is a very famous club, and 
it says "The officers and directors of the Poor Richard Club are grati- 
fied to learn that you have consented to join the club in honoring 
General Eisenhower at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, January 17."' 

Mr. Tavenner. What year? 

Mr. Burrows. The letter is dated December 26, 1047, and I was 
invited to appear January 17, 1048, and with GenerarEisenhower at 
this thing I was very, very thrilled about it, and I went to the dinner. 
If you recall, that was the first time they started the big Republican 
move for General Eisenhower in Philadelphia at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any other statement you desire to make 
that would throw light on either the truth or falsity or incorrectness 
of the testimony that has been introduced against you? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, sir, I think I have said about everything I can 
say on that. I don't deny that Mr. Vinson had a right to think that I 
was a Communist. I don't deny that a lot of people, because of my 
actions at the time, assumed that I was a Communist. And therefore 
he had a right to say so, and told the truth as he saw it. However, I 
came here to tell whatever I could about myself, and if I retain that 
•one little thing about not having made the final step, that is the only 
reservation I make, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't believe I have any other questions for this 
.gentleman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Frazier ? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. Just one or two, Mr. Burrows. 

You mentioned the various so-called front organizations that you 
have belonged to, and your status during the peace pact and during 
the time of the Duclos letter. Were you conscious of the fact that 
the party line, the Communist Party line, the American Communist 
Party line, was being directed by Soviet Russia at that particular 
time? 

Mr. Burrows. Do you mean in between those two times, sir? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. Between the peace pact and the Duclos letter. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, you are referring to the period during the war? 

Mi-. Velde. Well, primarily. 

Mr. Burrows. In that period during the war, it was very hard for 
me to be conscious of the fact that it was being directed by Soviet 
Russia, because it went so close to American policy. There was noth- 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4499 

in"; that was ever against American policy in any way that I can 
think of. 

Mr. Velde. Well, just a minute. You recall the days when the 
White House was being picketed here by the Communist Party mem- 
bers, don't you? 

Mi-. Burrows. Oh, you mean that was during the period of the 
Nazi-Soviet Pact and' what they used to call the American Peace 
Mobilization. I was not any part of any organization at all like that 
during that time. I got involved with these people in the L943 period, 
sir. I belonged, as I stated in my testimony, I belonged to the Ameri- 
can League for Peace and Democracy in 1947, and I resigned from it 
over the Soviet Pact, and I wrote a letter in which I thought it was a 
dreadful thing and I hated the whole idea of it and resigned from 
the American League. When I got involved with these fellows, they 
were all sweetness and light, back in 1943, because my stand, however,, 
on communism itself, and on dictatorship never changed. I am a 
man who has been kind of anti authoritarian in my thinking and their 
whole approach. I hate their whole approach that says any means 
to an end is o. k. 

Mr. Velde, You haven't answered my question specifically and I 
believe you can. Were you conscious of the fact that the American 
Communist Party line was being directed from Russia ? 

Mr. Burrows. I was during the pact, sir. 

Mr. Velde. During the pact. 

Mr. Burrows. During the Nazi-Soviet Pact. 

Mr. Velde. Up to June 21, 1941, you were conscious that the Ameri- 
can Communist Party policy was being directed by Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Burrow t s. I was. 

Mr. Velde. And then after that you say you weren't conscious of 
the fact. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, to my eternal regret I was sucked back in. I 
knew that all of a sudden the Communist Party, on June 22, 1941,. 
when the Soviet Union was attacked, all of a sudden said ''Let's go 
to war," and everything changed overnight. I know that. That was 
June 22, 1941. Somehow or other 2 years went by, it became 1943, 
and I must say I was sucked 

Mr. Velde. Did you think, then, in 1943, that the American Com- 
munist Party line was not being directed by Soviet Russia, is that the 
reason ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I guess I got sucked in by all of the statements 
that were made about unity. And if you remember Earl Browder 
was writing books. 

Mr. Vei.de. Well, now, just tell me about your feeling at the time 
you got back in with them, so to speak. 

Mr. Burrows. My feeling was that 

Mr. Velde. About the party line being directed by Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Burrows. My feeling was that they were sincere when they said 
at that time that they were an American directed party who were 
acting on their own. 

Mr. Velde. You thought all of a sudden they had changed and had 
divorced the Soviet Government completely? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, that they were going to act on their own. 

Mr. Velde. I must say. Mr. Burrows, you were pretty naive. 



4500 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I would go stronger than that. I would say 
I was stupid. But I will say, sir, that the Duclos letter, the letter- 
Mr. Duclos evidently said of all of the Communists, they are all stupid 
and silly, and you guys, he said, don't know what you are doing, and 
he accused them of the very thing you are saying, that I got sucked in 
by. He accused them of breaking away from the Soviet line, you see. 
" Mr. Velde. Well, I do not think he accused them of breaking away 
from the Soviet line, Mr. Burrows. All he wanted them to do was to 
return to the former militancy here in the United States. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes. But as I recall, his letter was pretty strong. 
He accused them of a great many things. I know, as far as com- 
munism is concerned, as I say, I am the kind of fellow who could never 
go along with the kind of things that are called Marxist Communists, 
revolution, violence. I hate the whole idea of the dictatorship. You 
know, they tell you that the means are justified by the end. I don't 
believe that. I don't believe you kill people for their own good. They 
say they kill people to make a better world. Well, the world is made 
up of human beings, and all you do by killing people is make the 
world nonexistent. I want to try, really, to fight it. I think I can 
fight it best with my own weapons, which are what talent I have. I 
have a couple of ideas for a play next year I would like to do, an 
anti-Communist comedy. I have a couple of magazine articles I want 
to write, and I do hope I can prove how much I hate this whole thing. 

Mr. Wood. I believe the record should show expressly your reply to 
the question as to whether or not you are now or have ever been a 
Communist. As far as I know, the record doesn't show an expressed 
reply from you in answer to that question. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I think I explained it, sir. 

Mr. Wood. I know, but I will ask you the question now. Are you 
now a Communist ? 

Mr. Burrows. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, as far as I have ever been, as I said, I have 
never applied for party membership ; if there is a party card with my 
name, I know nothing about it, but, as I said, I did associate with these 
fellows. 

Mr. Wood. I know, but you can answer that question in your own 
express way as to whether or not you have ever been or considered 
yourself as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Burrows. I was considered a Communist, 

Mr. Wood. You so considered yourself, too? 

Mr. Burrows. I was considered a Communist. In my own heart I 
didn't believe it, but I think I was considered a Communist, and that 
was the whole thing of my coming here to talk about Mr. Vinson's 
testimony. 

Mr. Wood. You say you were considered by others to be. You know 
yourself whether or not you were, don't you ? 

Mi-. Burrows. Well, you see, sir, by all of the actions I did, all of 
the material things, all of the facts, I guess I committed enough acts 
to be called a Communist. I am testifying here under oath. 

Mr. Wood. Well, what would you call yourself? Would you have 
called yourself a Communist at that time? 

Mr. Burrows. Not in my own heart, sir. But I am here under oath, 
and I am here to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4501 

truth, and there is an element of truth in the statement that I was a 
Communist, but there is also an element of untruth, and I am left in 
that position. 

Mr. Wood. We understand your position in that respect, but now 
can't you answer on your own as to whether or not you were ever a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I don't see how I could answer it any differ- 
ently from how I did answer it. I would like anybody's help in this 
if I could have it, sir. 

Mr. Wood. I understand about the witness who gave the testimony. 
You have given a clear answer to that, but you have not expressed 
yourself clearly as to what you have to say about it. 

Mr. Burrows. Well, sir, let's put it this way : I don't deny the truth 
of the accusations of the witness. 

Mr. Wood. Any other questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. I might make one comment. You stated that you 
desired to use your weapons against communism. 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I might say, our observations have been that ridi- 
cule is about one of the most effective weapons against members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Burrows. They can't take it. I know in Russia, I read daily 
about what happens with writers there, and about Stalin likes an 
opera or doesn't like an opera, and he likes it to be serious. I read 
one item somewhere where they don't like jokes, they don't like funny 
stuff. 

Mr. Wood. May I resume? I cannot understand how at this time 
you can emphatically say you are not now a member of the Commu- 
nist Party and why you cannot so clearly express yourself in the same 
manner as to whether or not you have ever been. 

Mr. Burrows. Because of my associations, sir, and the fact that I 
was around with those fellows, and I did go to meetings with them, and 
attended things with them. I have to go on this case by the objective 
facts of what other people thought and what it looked like. I was, by 
association — by association, sir, I can't under oath deny that. 

Mr. Wood. Well, that is the point. You are not necessarily a Com- 
munist by association ; I mean you weren't. 

Mr. Burrows. I didn't say I was by association. But I say they 
thought me one, and I was assumed to be one, and I am not denying 
they had a right to. 

Mr. Wood. You mean to say that to a full extent you conducted 
yourself and participated in all of the Communist activities at that 
time with a reservation in your own heart? 

Mr. Burrows. Yes, sir. That is very well put. 

Mr. Velde. And you did attend Communist Party meetings, know- 
ing them to be such ? 

Mr. Burrows. Well, I attended meetings at which Communists 
were present. I still don't know whether study groups were Commu- 
nist Party meetings, HICCASP meetings, radio writers' meetings; it 
is all kind of jelled together in my mind. Those were very bad years 
for me in the terms of personal trouble, and my mother and father 
both died, and I, as a matter of fact, had to seek help from a psychia- 
trist, and that whole period is kind of a painful, very painful period 
to me. 



4502 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wood. I am sorry to pursue this line of thought further, but 
your participation in those organizations, you say, cast some suspicion 
upon you, as I understand it, that others considered you a Communist, 
but were you actually a member of the Communist Party or any of 
those organizations? 

Mr. Burrows. I have answered that, sir. 

Mr. Wood. I do not mean Communist-front organizations or any 
other activities that would cast a reflection on you, but actually attend 
Communist Party meetings of Communist members. 

Mr. Burrows. As I say, I was at meetings which had Communists 
at them, and I was at these study groups I have told you about. 

Mr. Wood. And they were Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Burrows. I imagine they could be called Communist Party 
meetings. I imagine so. I really am very vague on that. I am sorry 
if I sound overvague. 

Mr. Wood. Any more questions, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Any more questions, Mr. Frazier? Mr. Velde? 

The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Burrows. I would like to thank the committee, if I may. 
Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Mr. Wood. The committee will be in recess. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 05 p. m. the committee recessed until 10 a. m., 
Thursday, November 13, 1952.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF THE HOLLYWOOD 
MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 10 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1952 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10:40 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter 
(presiding), James B. Frazier, Jr., and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; John W. Carrington, clerk; and 
A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. AValter. The committee will come to order. 

This is a subcommittee appointed by the chairman of the committee 
this morning, the subcommittee consisting of Messrs. Frazier, Velde, 
and Walter, all of whom are present. 

Mr. Tavenner, who is your witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Karen Morley is the witness. 

Mr. Walter. Miss Morley, will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Morley. I do. 

Mr. Walter. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OF KAREN MORLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

VITO MARCANTONIO 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 
Miss Morley. Karen Morley is my professional name. 
Mr. Walter. I think the record should show that Miss Morley is 
represented by counsel, Mr. Marcantonio. 

Will you give your address, Mr. Marcantonio ? 

Mr. Marcantonio. 11 Park Place, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Karen Morley is your professional name? 

Miss Morley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your legal name ? 

Miss Morley. Mildred Victor, V-i-d-o-r. 

Air. Tavenner. What was your maiden name '. 

Miss Morley. Linton, L-i-n-t-o-n. 

4503 



4594 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Miss Morley. Ottumwa, Iowa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state for the committee briefly what your 
educational training has been? 

Miss Morley. Yes. I attended grammar school and the first year 
of high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Miss Morley. In Ottumwa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please? 

Miss Morley. O-t-t-u-m-w-a. 

I finished high school in Hollywood, and I spent a year at the Uni- 
versity of California at Los Angeles. 

Mr.* Tavenner. When did you go to Hollywood ? 

Miss Morley. In 1924. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession ? 

Miss Morley. I am an actress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly what your 
experience has been as an actress ; that is, how you have been employed, 
and where? 

Miss Morley. The majority of my employment has been in the 
studios in Hollywood, first as a contract player at Metro, and then as 
a free-lance player in Hollywood, and I have done some radio and 
some theater, and I traveled with the USO during the war, overseas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, will you give us the date when you first 
began your career in Hollywood ? 

Miss Morley. About 1030, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you said you later became a free-lance 
actress? 

Miss Morley. Yes. I was under contract to Metro for 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What years were they ? 

Miss Morley. I think 1931 to 1935. I could be a year oif there, I 
haven't checked it for such a long time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that the time, in 1935, when you began free- 
lance acting? 

Miss Morley. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the time you were acting for Metro, what 
were the principal screen credits that you received ? 

Miss Morley. Well, Inspiration was the first picture I made at 
Metro. Black Fury, I was loaned from Metro to make ; and this was 
true also of Scarf ace. 

I made a picture called Washington Masquerade. I made a picture 
i ailed Arsene Lupin. There were really quite a lot of them and, if I 
had thought you wanted to know, I could have brought some in. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just in a general way. 

Did you play a featured role in a picture called M ? 

Miss Morley. Yes; a small part. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who the director of that picture was? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Marcantonio. What was the question again? 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked if she recalled who was the director of that 
picture. 

Miss Morley. Yes. It is a matter of record that Mr. Losey di- 
rected M. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please? 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4505 

Miss Morley. I think it is L-o-s-e-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall his first name? 

Miss Morley. Joe, I guess. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Joseph Losey has been identified by Mr .Leo 
Townsend as having been a director who was a member of the Com- 
munist Party cell in Hollywood with which he himself had been 
associated or affiliated. Do you know anything of the Communist 
Party membership of Joseph Losey ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. Well, I claim my privilege under the fifth amendment 
not to answer that question, since the fifth amendment permits me 
not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that your career began in Hollywood 
in 1935. Where did you reside at that time ? 

Miss Morley. Westwood, although the street number and name 
escapes me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Westwood was the name of the street ? 

Miss Morley. Westwood is a part of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at the same place while you were 
working for Metro in 1931 to 1935, approximately? 

Miss Morley. No. I lived several places. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live between 1931 and 1935 ? 

Miss Morley. I can't remember. I moved from the Westwood 
house to Palos Verdes. That is a little community on the coast near 
San Pedro, and I lived in a house called Portuguese Point. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live there ? 

Miss Morley. About a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you move from there ? 

Miss Morley. To a house in Brentwood. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long, approximately, did you live there? 

Miss Morley. A year. 

Mr. Tavenner. That brings you up to about what year ? 

Miss Morley. I guess that brings me up to about 1935. I just 
haven't thought of these addresses for such a long time I could be 
inaccurate by a few months, at least. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you embarked upon your work as a free- 
lance actress, did you remain in Hollywood, or did you go to other 
parts of the country ? 

Miss Morley. I lived in Hollywood most of the time, although I 
did spend some time in New York and I did travel to Europe. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year did you travel to Europe '. 

Miss Morley. In 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return to Hollywood after your trip 
to Europe? 

Miss Morley. It was either at the end of 1937 or earlv in 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in Hollywood at that 
time \ 

Miss Morley. Until about 1940. at which time I went to New York. 
where I lived for about 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then did you return to Hollywood in 1944? 

Miss Morlky. Well, I traveled back and forth between the t wo coasts 
quite a lot. 



4506 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Tavenner. When you stated you remained in New York for 
about 4 years after arriving there in 1940, that indicated that in 1944 
you moved to some other place. 

Miss Morley. I did return to California for a while, and then I -went 
overseas for the summer of 1945, and then I went back to California 
in the winter of 194f>. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you went to California in 1944, on leaving 
New York, where did you reside ? 

Miss Morley. In an apartment at Beverly Hills. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the address ? 

Miss Morley. It was on Peck Drive, I believe. I am sorry to be so 
vague about this, and if I had known you wanted it I could have done 
some research on it. I travel a great deal. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am only asking for your best recollection. 

Mr. Marcantonio. If the committee desires, we will be happy to 
submit a list to you where she resided at the various periods. 

Mr. Tavenner. We may ask for that before we finish. 

Do you recall the street address? 

Miss Morley. No ; I really don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say you lived on Peck Drive, would the 
address have been Peck Drive, or would it have been some street off 
of Peck Drive ? 

Miss Morley. No; that was the name of the street, and I just don't 
remember the apartment number. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live there ? 

Miss Morley. Some months. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next address in Los Angeles or in 
Hollywood? 

Miss Morley. I believe 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I think it was shortly after that that I bought a house 
in Laurel Canyon ; I believe it was that one. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the address ? 

Miss Morley. 2723 Laurel Canyon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us that again ? 

Miss Morley. 2723 Laurel Canyon Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at any time at 727 North La Jolla 
Street ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. Yes ; that is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you living at that address? 

Miss Morley. That must have been early in 1945, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live there? 

Miss Morley. A few months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you live there before you lived at Peck 
Drive, or after you lived at Peck Drive ? 

Miss Morley. I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it a private home or an apartment house? 

Miss Morley. It is an apartment house, two-family apartment 
house. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said at first it was a private home. 

Miss Morley. It is a two-family apartment house. 

Mr. Tavenner. Two-family apartment house? 

Miss Morley. Yes. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4507 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live with another family there? 

Miss Morley. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the family ? 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer this under my privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. A person by the name of Bonnie, B-o-n-n-i-e, Claire, 
C-1-a-i-r-e, lived at that address? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. It is the same answer, Mr. Tavenner. I claim my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, aside from the name of the family or the 
persons who lived at that same address, were you accustomed, in ad- 
dressing letters, to give your address as being in care of a person 
living at that house ? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer this question on the same grounds, 
Mr. Tavenner — my privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live or reside at 2723 Laurel Can- 
yon Boulevard, which I believe you stated w T as the location of the home 
which you purchased ? 

Miss Morley. Yes. I have lived there intermittently since I bought 
it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by "intermittently"? 

Miss Morley. Because I travel a great deal, and I lived in the East 
some of the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you living there in 1951? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. Only the very, very beginning of 1951, up to the 
beginning of 1951 1 was there. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date was it in the very beginning of 1951 
when you left that address ? 

Miss Morley. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the month ? 

Miss Morley. I think it would be around the end of January, I 
believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you left there, where did you go ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. What was the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was: When you left the address of 
2723 Laurel Canyon Boulevard in early 1951, where did you move to? 

Miss Morley. I had a vacation in the desert at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Miss Morley. Of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the desert is a rather large place. Where in 
the desert ? 

Miss Morley. It was between Indio and Palm Springs. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the place where you took 
your vacation ? 

Miss Morley. A little community called La Quinta. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain there ? 

Miss Morley. I was there until the weather got quite hot. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Miss Morley. About June. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since June, where have you lived } . 



4508 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Miss Morley. I have been living in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. The entire time ? 

Miss Morley. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have yon been out of the country since the begin- 
ning of 1951? 

Miss Morley. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to ask you to reflect a moment and see 
if you were not living at the address of 2723 Laurel Canyon Boulevard 
as late as the 26th day of February 1951 ? 

Let me read to you — you shook your head, but the reporter can't get 
that in the record. If you mean no, say so. 

Miss Morley. I don't know the date, but I am pretty sure I wasn't 
there at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly this will refresh your recollection. 1 am 
reading from the testimony of an investigator of the committee, Mr. 
Wheeler, who endeavored to serve certain subpenas in the Hollywood 
area in early 1951. His testimony is as follows : 

The next individual is Miss Karen Morley, an actress who resides at 2723 
Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Hollywood, Calif. The home of Miss Morley was first 
visited during the week of February 26, 1951. In response to the ringing of the 
doorbell, an individual, also an actor, named Lloyd Gough (G-o-u-g-h), came to 
the door, and we talked to him regarding Miss Morley. He stated that she 
would be back later and to call later the same day. We did, and we called back 
on various occasions during our period there and found absolutely no one at home. 

Does that refresh your recollection ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall Mr. Lloyd Gough mentioning to 
you that an investigator from this committee had called at your 
home ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. No ; I don't recall that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Morley, during the course of the investigation 
which the committee has conducted into Communist Party activities 
in the entertainment field, particularly in the field of the moving- 
picture industry, various witnesses have had something to say with 
regard to you. I want to read you their testimony, and if their tes- 
timony is true you should be in a position to be of valuable assistance 
to this committee in advising us about the matters that are the subject 
of inquiry. 

The first witness is Mr. Sterling Hayden, who appeared as a wit- 
ness before the committee on April 10, 1951. Mr. Hayden had testi- 
fied that he was a member of a Communist Party cell, not in the 
Actors' Guild but among workers in Hollywood. He testified that he 
had been directed to contact the Screen Actors' Guild and do what he 
could to bring members of that guild into a position where they could 
help the Conference of Studio Unions. He testified that he attended 
meetings of that group. And then I asked him who, of the group 
that he met with, were members of the Communist Party, to his 
knowledge, and the questions and answers arose this way : 

Questioner. Are there any of that group whom you can identify as members 
of the Communist Party, to your knowledge? I am not asking you for names of 
people generally who were with you in this project, unlesfe they were known to 
yon to be members of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4509 

Mr. Hayden. I understand. I wouldn't hesitate to say Karon Morley, inas- 
much as in 1947, a long time after I had completely severed any and all connec- 
tions with any form of Communist activities or endeavor, she came to me and 
asked me to come back. So, I certainly think it is safe to assume that she was ;i 
member. * * * 

Questioner. Did that group narrow down to a comparatively few who actually 
functioned? 

Mr. Hayden. I would say there was a nucleus that would attend meetings 
more regularly. When there were gatherings to see what could be done, there 
were certain people who would appear more regularly. There were people on the 
periphery, on the edge, who would be there sometimes ; and other people were 
there more regularly. 

Questioner. How frequently did you meet to work on that enterprise? 

Mr. Hayden. I would say once or twice a week. 

Questioner. Did Karen Morley meet with you? 

Mr. Hayden. Yes. 

Questioner. Where were these meetings held? 

Mr. Hayden. Some were held at Karen Morley's house. Some were held at a 
house owned by a man named Morris Carnovsky, who, I might say, was never 
present. And others were held at homes which I only knew at that time by 
address. 

Ftirtl ter questions were asked regarding the request that you were 
alleged by Mr. Hayden to have made to him. This question was asked : 

You have indicated that, after your relationship with the Communist Party 
was severed, Karen Morley came to you and asked you to come back into the 
party. 

Mr. Hayden. Yes. 

Questioner. Will you give the committee the entire transaction as it occurred? 

Mr. Hayden. She came to our house. I had remarried in June of that year. 
She came to our house, I believe, right after or before the Committee for the 
First Amendment was formed. She came and said she wanted me to consider 
coming back in, and I said : "There is nothing to be considered. This is it. 
There is nothing to discuss" and so forth and so on. 

As she left the house I took her out to the front hall, and she said : "I hope 
you realize that, having made that decision, it will be extremely hard for you to 
ever get back in." And I said : "Nothing will please me more." That ended it. 

Did you have that conversation with Mr. Hayden, and is there any 
statement in his testimony that is untrue ? 

Mr. Marcaxtonio. There are two questions there in one. Let us 
have one at a time. 

Mr. Walter. It should be divided, I think. 

Let me see the book, please. 

(The book referred to was handed to Mr. Walter.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have the conversation with Mr. Hayden 
according to his testimony? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment that I need not testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the 18th day of September 1951, Mr. Leo Town- 
send was a witness before the committee. Mr. Townsend testified as 
to persons in Hollywood who were members of the Communist Party 
cell with him. His testimony was as follows — in naming certain 
individuals he said : 

There were Paul and Sylvia Jarrico, J-a-r-r-i-c-o ; there was Joseph Losey. 
L-o-s-e-y. 

Question. Will you identify him further, please. 

Answer. He is a film director. 

Question. A rilni director? 

Answer. Yes ; and his wife Louise Losey. She may well be out of the party at 
this time. He may be, too; I don't know. I hope they have a chance to slate 



4510 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

their position if they are. There was a writer named Ben Bengal, B-e-n-g-a-1, and 
an actress named Karen Morley. These are the names that I remember as 
members of those various branches. 

He had named other persons in advance. 

Question. Do you know where Karen Morley is now? 
Answer. No, sir ; I do not. 

Is the testimony of Mr. Townsend, insofar as it relates to yon, true; 
or is it false ? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke 
my rights under the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. In our last hearing in Hollywood, Mr. Paul Marion 
testified, and this was on October 2, 1952. Mr. Marion had testified 
that he had been a member of a group of the Communist Party organ- 
ized within radio. In the course of his testimony, he testified as 
follows — he also had been testifying with regard to the work of the 
Conference of Studio Unions. His testimony follows : 

Now, in order to get meetings, there had to be petitions with names of about 
350, I think, so that the meetings could be called, and we only had one meeting 
a year in the Screen Actors' Guild. Now, we went out, this group went out and 
got these meetings together, and before one of the big meetings in which very 
important people were invited to speak for the side that was for the Conference 
of Studio Unions, we had a meeting — and I will say that a great many people 
were for the Conference of Studio Unions emotionally without knowing much of 
the background. I did not know anything of the background, either, but I went 
along. There was a meeting held before this big meeting, where tactics and 
strategy were to be discussed in relation to that meeting, and this meeting was 
held at Alvin Hammer's house. This was a meeting that was a closed Com- 
munist meeting. 

At this meeting, the strategy and tactics were discussed, and we were helped by 
a man by the name of Ben Margolis, who was there at the time, besides Karen 
Morley and Lloyd Gough. 

Was Mr. Paul Marion's testimony true or false with reference to 
your participation in the closed Communist Party meeting to which 
he referred ? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Another witness, by the name of Marc Lawrence, 
testified before the committee on April 12, 1951. This question was 
asked : 

Can you give us the names of those who were members with you in this cell 
within the Actors' Lab? 

Mr. Lawrence. Well, there was J. Bromberg, J. Edward Bromberg, the man 
I mentioned before. There was Karen Morley. I don't know whether she was 
connected directly with the lab. I went to a meeting at her house. There was 
Morris Carnovsky. 

Were you at any time a member of the Communist Party cell of 
which Marc Lawrence was a member? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you returned from Hollywood to New 
York in 1940, and that you were there for about 4 years. What was 
the nature of your employment during that 4-year period? 

Miss Morley. I was in four unsuccessful plays during that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you engage in any other activities in addi- 
tion to the work with the four plays that you have mentioned? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4511 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Marc antonio. When you say ''activities," in order for the wit- 
ness to be specific in her answer or decide on what to answer, 1 think 
the question ought to be a little bit more specific; and what do you 
mean by "other activities"? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you engaged in any other line of work? 

Mr. Marcantonio. Besides acting, you mean \ 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Miss Morley. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you do any work in organizing — labor organiz- 
ing '( 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a newspaper known as the 
Pacific Coast Shipyard Worker, which is the official organ of Local 
9 of the International Union of Marine and Shipyard Workers of 
America \ 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. I regret I don't have the issue of December 30, 1943, 
of that paper, but I have reliable information that it contains an 
article reported by the Federated Press under a New York dateline, 
which reflects that Karen Morley had found union organizing more 
exciting than acting, and thought that unions should make better use 
of the movies as an educational and organizational weapon. And 
then you were quoted as saying that everyone in the country goes to 
the movies, and that they are too important to be left in Hollywood; 
that the unions should step in and start making pictures. 

Mr. Marcantonio. What is the question, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, does that refresh your recollection to a point 
where you can tell us what activities you were engaged in at that time 
in using the movies or using short films as an organizational weapon 
in behalf of labor? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not mean to infer there is anything wrong 
about using films for the assistance of labor. 

Miss Morley. I understand that. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. In 1944, 1 used what influence I could to get the United 
Automobile Workers to make a film on the Roosevelt campaign, and 
they did make a cartoon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, your work was not confined merely to that one 
effort ; was it ? 

Miss Morley. That is the only movie, in whose production I had any 
part, that was made for a labor union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, but were you active in that field in endeavor- 
ing to develop just what this newspaper article alleged you were 
interested in, that is, to make better use of the movies as an educa- 
tional and organization weapon in behalf of organizing unions? 

Miss Morley. Yes, I tried very hard to convince the national CIO 
Board that it should make motion pictures for the benefit of labor. 
Unfortunately, nothing came of these plans, that is, concretely, ex- 



4512 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

cept the cartoon which was made by the UAW; and later the UAW 
made another cartoon called Brotherhood of Man, made from a hook 
called Races of Mankind. But I was not directly connected with 
that. I would like to take credit for it, but I am afraid I can't. 

Mr. Velde. Who did write the script for that picture, Miss Mor- 
ley? 

Miss Mokley. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then did you follow that up by working for the 
same general principles in radio that you had worked for in movies^ 

Miss Morley. I have always, or at least for a number of years, 
spoken in favor of the use of radio and film and television by the 
unions to strengthen the labor movement, that is true. Unfortunately, 
very little comes of this. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you endeavored to organize work of that char- 
acter in radio, did you not? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Marcantonio. Will you explain just what you mean by "or- 
ganize" ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you work on scripts that you proposed or 
hoped would be used in radio to carry out your views and the plan 
that you just talked about ? 

Miss Morley. I would say "No," except in a most rough kind of out- 
line suggestions. Certainly not anything like a finished script. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you consult other people about the script, 
and obtain the assistance of others in the preparation of it? 

Miss Morley. No, I would say that the kind of work that I was 
suggesting that the unions should do was pretty much what I thought 
of. They were pretty much my ideas, and I was not working in any 
concerted way. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you consult John Howard Lawson or pre- 
sent a script of a proposed film to John Howard Lawson for him to 
review ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. No, I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever consult Lou Harris or Paul Jarrico, or 
obtain their assistance in any way in the preparation of scripts for 
this purpose? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I don't remember conferring with the people you 
have mentioned on any script which I recommended to any union to 
be made. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I am not asking you to limit it to just merely 
scripts which you recommended be made, but did you have their as- 
sistance in work on any script, whether it was recommended or not? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I don't think so ; no. I don't remember of any such 
script. You see, the kind of thing that I am interested in seeing 
unions do is in such a formative stage that it is nowhere near the 
script stage. You see, I have gone a number of times to trade-union 
leaders and talked to them about the sort of script that could be 
written. 

Mr. Tavenner. And my inquiry is : To what extent has the Com- 
munist Party taken any part, or members of the Communist Party, in 
promoting the thing that you are interested in? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4513 

Miss Morley. Well, I couldn't answer you that question, Mr. Tav- 
enner. I would claim my right under the fifth amendment not to 
answer and not to incriminate myself and not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you connected in any way with the United 
Productions of America as a part owner or in any other way? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley'. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you tell the committee whether or not the 
United Productions of America was connected with or was a unit of 
the People's Educational Association? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Which was also known as the People's Educational 
Center of Los Angeles? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time attended a meeting of the 
radio cultural division of the Hollywood section of the Los Angeles 
County Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. We would like to show you a photostatic copy of a 
program issued by the Artists' Front to Win the War, and will you 
look at page 4 of the exhibit and state whether or not your name 
appears there as one of the sponsors? 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that it should be at page 4. 

Mr. Marcantonio. What is the question again, please? 

Mr. Tavenner. Does your name appear there as a sponsor ? 

Miss Morley-. I refuse to answer your question, Mr. Tavenner, 
under my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked as "Morley Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 1," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a copy of a letterhead, a photostatic 
copy of a letterhead of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 
dated October 24, 1945. Will you look at the second page, which is 
a photostatic copy of the back of the original letterhead, and state 
whether or not your name appears there? 

(The letterhead referred to was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Does your name appear as a sponsor ? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
it be marked as "Morley Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 2," 
is filed herewith.) 



4514 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of page 4 of the 
Daily People's World of October 3, 1947. In the third column there 
is a news item regarding an All States Tea given by the National 
Negro Congress. According to the article, you were one of the stars 
scheduled to appear on that occasion. Did you appear at this tea '. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask it 
to be marked as "Morley Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 3," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of two pages from a 
schedule of classes of the People's Educational Center for the 1947 
winter term. Will you look at the second page and state whether 
or not your name appears, with Ben Barzman and Arnold Manoff, 
to lecture on the motion picture Illusion and Eeality ? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence, and ask it to be 
marked "Morley Exhibit No. 4." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 4, n 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you conduct a course in the People's Educa- 
tional Association in 1945? Were you a teacher in that school in 
1945? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you lecture at the People's Educational Center 
at any time? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer your question, Mr. Tavenner, 
and invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of page 15 of the 
Hollywood Reporter of November 3, 1947, and it is a full-page adver- 
tisement contributed by the actors' division of the Progressive Citizens 
of America. Will you examine the exhibit and state whether or not 
your name appears there as a person having signed the statement 
contained in the advertisement? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer 

Mr. Marcantonio. Wait a minute. 

Miss Morley. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke 
my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence and ask it to be 
marked "Morley Exhibit No. 5." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 5," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you the Daily People's World of January 8, 
1951. On page 10 is a news item concerning a letter approved by the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professional Council. According to this news item 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 4515 

the letter was presented by Karen Morley, and charged that the Mc- 
Carran Act 1 was unconstitutional. The letter also demands amnesty 
for all political prisoners, citizens and foreign-born, jailed under the 
McCarran Act. 

Did you present the letter which was attributed to you ? 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the letter in evidence, and ask it to be 
marked "Morley Exhibit No. 6." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 6," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you the March 15, 1951, issue of the Daily 
Worker. Beginning on page 5 and carried over to page 8 there is an 
article containing the names of sponsors of the American Peace 
Crusade. 

Mr. Walter. What is the date of that ? 

Mr. Beale. March 15, 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you look at page 8 and state whether or not 
your name appears thereon as a sponsor ? 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence, and ask it to be 
marked as "Morley Exhibit No. 7." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 7," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a call to the 
American People's Congress and Exposition for Peace, held in 
Chicago, June 29, 30, and July 1, 1951. Will you examine the exhibit 
and state if your name appears thereon as a sponsor? 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, 
and invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence and ask it to be 
marked "Morley Exhibit No. 8." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 8," 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you the September 25, 1952, issue of the 
Daily Worker. On page 3 is a news item stating that Karen Morley 
will read letters from Korea to the New York Peace Meeting to be held 
that night at the City Center Casino. Did you read letters from 
Korea as it was indicated you would in that article ? 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1 Internal Security Act of 1950, Public Law 831, Slst Cong., 2d sess. 



4516 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment- 
Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive letters to be read on that occasion; 
and if so ; from whom did you receive them ? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that. Mr. Tavenner, on the same 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence and ask it to be 
marked "Morley Exhibit No. 9." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to. marked ''Morley Exhibit Xo. 9, r 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you the Daily People's World of Tuesday, 
October 24, 1950. On page 12 appears a news item concerning the 
delegation that called on the district director of immigration at Los 
Angeles, protesting arrests under the McCarran Act. 2 Will you 
examine the exhibit and state whether or not you were a member of the 
delegation, as indicated in the exhibit ( 

(The document referred to was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence, and ask it to be 
marked as "'Morley Exhibit No. 10." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Morley Exhibit No. 10,"" 
is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in a picketing of it, in front of 
the Immigration and Naturalization Service offices at 458 South 
Spring Street, Los Angeles, on September 26, 1950 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the picketing sponsored by the Los Angeles 
Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born ? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer your question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Abraham Lincoln 
Polonsky ? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question. Mr. Tavenner 

Mi*. Tavenner. Did you ever attend a meeting in his home — -excuse 
me, I didn't mean to cut you off. 

Miss Morley. You know it by heart now, I am sure. 

I decline to answer that question on the same grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever attend a meeting in his home? 

Miss Morley. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr-. Walter. Who is the individual, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Polonsky appeared as a witness before the 
committee, but refused to answer any material questions; and he had 
been identified by a number of witnesses as ha vino- been a member of 



■^ 



Il)i<l. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 45 17 

the Communist Party, and he was very prominent in Hollywood dur- 
ing the time he was there. 

At one time he had been an employee of the — I think I should only 
say of a Government agency, and I have forgotten what branch it was,, 
and I think it was connected with labor. 

Are 3 r ou now a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavexxer. While in New York, did you become acquainted 
with a person by the name of Inez G arson? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Morley. To the best of my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Tavexxer. She. was executive secretary of the cultural branch 
of the Communist Party in New York, and would that refresh your 
recollection ? 

Mr. Marcaxtoxio. The answer is "No." 

Mr. Beale. Let her answer. 

Mr. Walter. That is all right, 

Mr. Marcaxtoxio. She shook her head, and that was obvious to the 
whole committee. 

Miss Morley. No. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Branch Y of the Communist Party was said to have 
been a group made up of persons transferred there from other sections 
of the country before assignment to a particular branch, and also for 
members who were regarded as out-of-town members. Were you ever 
a member of branch Y of the Communist Party in Los Angeles? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that, Mr. Tavenner, and invoke 
my privilege under the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you at any time a member, after 1944, of 
branch F of the Communist Party ( 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Of the northwest section of the Communist Party \ 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might incriminate me, and I invoke my privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have you been affiliated with the Communist Party 
in New York and Los Angeles, or at any other place, at any time? 

Miss Morley. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. Any questions, Mr. Frazier ( 

Mr. Frazier. I have no questions. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions. 

Mr. Walter. If there are no questions, the witness may be excused 
from further attendance. 

Is there anything further, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Walter. The hearing is now adjourned. 

( "Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the hearing was adjourned. ) 

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